Bibliography


Research News
 

Know the Science Behind Adaptiv Calming Blend

  1. Sargolzaee M., et al. The comparison of the efficacy of citrus fragrance and fluoxetine in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Horizon of Medical Sciences. 2004:10(3):43-48.
  2. Lehrner J., et al. Ambient odors of orange and lavender reduce anxiety and improve mood in a dental office. Physiology & Behavior. 2005;86(1-2):92-95.
  3. Field T., et al. Lavender fragrance cleansing gel effects on relaxation. International Journal of Neuroscience. 2005;115(2):207-222.
  4. Chen M., et al. The effects of aromatherapy in relieving symptoms related to job stress among nurses: Aromatherapy. International Journal of Nursing Practice. 2015;21(1):87-93.
  5. Sayorwan W., et al. The effects of lavender oil inhalation on emotional states, autonomic nervous system, and brain electrical activity. J Med Assoc Thai. 2012;95(4):598-606.
  6. Kitikannakorn N., et al. An overview of the evidences of herbals for smoking cessation. Complement. Ther. Med. 2013;21(5):557-564.
  7. Jaradat N., et al. The effect of inhalation of Citrus sinensis flowers and Mentha spicata leave essential oils on lung function and exercise performance: a quasi-experimental uncontrolled before-and-after study. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2016;13(1).
  8. Umezu T. Evaluation of the effects of plant-derived essential oils on central nervous system function using discrete shuttle-type conditioned avoidance response in mice: Essential oils and avoidance response. Phytotherapy Research. 2012;26(6):884-891.
  9. Sayorwan W. Effects of rosemary oil on subjective feelings and activities of the nervous system. Sci. Pharm. 2013;81(2):531-542.
  10. Atsumi T. and Tonosaki K. Smelling lavender and rosemary increases free radical scavenging activity and decreases cortisol level in saliva. Psychiatry Res. 2007;150(1):89-96.
  11. Choi Y., et al. Effects of inhalation of essential oil of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara on menopausal symptoms, and estrogen in postmenopausal women: A randomized controlled trial. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2014:1-7.
  12. Hu P., et al. Aromatherapy for reducing colonoscopy related procedural anxiety and physiological parameters: a randomized controlled study. Hepatogastroenterology. 2010;57(102):1082.
  13. Lingbeck J., et al. Sweetgum: An ancient source of beneficial compounds with modern benefits. Pharmacognosy Review. 2015;9(17):1-11.
  14. Lingbeck J., et al. Sweetgum: An ancient source of beneficial compounds with modern benefits. Pharmacogn Rev. 2015;9(17):1-11.

Black Spruce

  1. H. C. Government of Canada. Health Canada - Siberian Fir,” 26-Jul-2004. Retrieved from: http://webprod.hc-sc.gc.ca/nhpid-bdipsn/atReq.do?atid=aromatherap&lang=eng#use5.
  2. Dorman H. and Deans S. Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2000;88(2):308-316.
  3. De Boer H., Lamxay V., and Bjork L. Steam sauna and mother roasting in Lao PDR: practices and chemical constituents of essential oils of plant species used in postpartum recovery. BMC Complementary Alternative Medicine. 2011;11:128.

What is Celery Seed Essential Oil?

  1. Hassanen N., et al. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of celery (Apium graveolens) and coriander (Coriandrum sativum) herb and seed essential. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2015;3(4):284-296.
  2. Baananou S, et al. Antiulcerogenic and antibacterial activities of Apium graveolens essential oil and extract. Natural Products Research. 2013;27(12):1075-1083.
  3. Alves-Silva J, et al. Chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial, antifungal and antioxidant properties of essential oils obtained from some herbs widely used in Portugal. Food Control. 2013;32(2):371-378.

Citronella Essential Oil

  1. Tawatsin A., et al. Repellency of volatile oils from plants against three mosquito vectors. J Vector Ecol. 2001;26(1):76-82.
  2. Pattnaik S, Subramanyam V, and Kole C. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of ten essential oils in vitro. Microbios. 1996;86(349):237-246.
  3. Choi H, et al. Radical-scavenging activities of citrus essential oils and their components: detection using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. J Agric Food Chem. 2000;48(9):4156-4161.
  4. Saeki Y. and Shiohara M. Physiological effects of inhaling fragnances. International Journal of Aromatherapy. 2001;11(3):118-125.
  5. Duarte M, et al. Anti-Candida activity of Brazilian medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2005;97(2):305-311.

How Do You Use Lemon Eucalyptus Essential Oil?

  1. Ferreria M. and Moore S. Plant-based insect repellents: a review of their efficacy, development and testing. Malaria Journal. 2011;10(1):S11.
  2. Ilyina I., et al. Highly potent activity of isopulegol-derived substituted octahydro-2H-chromen-4-ols against influenza A and B viruses. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2018;28(11):2061-2067.
  3. Bounihi A., et al. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity of melissa officinalis l. essential oil. Adv Pharmacol Sci. 2013:101759. doi: 10.1155/2013/101759.
  4. Silva M, et al. Central nervous system activity of acute administration of isopulegol in mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2007;88(2):141-147.
  5. Gonzalez-Audino P, et al. Comparative toxicity of oxygenated monoterpenoids in experimental hydroalcoholic lotions to permethrin resistant adult head lice. Arch. Dermatol. Res. 2011;303(5):361-366.
  6. Batubara I., et al. “Effects of Inhaled Citronella Oil and Related Compounds on Rat Body Weight and Brown Adipose Tissue Sympathetic Nerve. Nutrients. 2015;1859-1870.

Yarrow|Pom Body Renewal Serum

  1. Ushma N. Skin care in the aging female: Myths and truths. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2012;122(2):473-477.
  2. D’Alessio P., et al. Skin repair properties of d-Limonene and perillyl alcohol in murine models. Antiinflamm Antiallergy Agents Med Chem. 2014;13(1):29-35.
  3. Valente J., et al. Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Denanthe crocata L. essential oil. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2013;62:349-354.
  4. Sharifzadeh A., et al. Evaluation of antioxidant and antifungal properties of the traditional plants against foodbore fungal pathogens. J Mycol Med. 2016;26(1):e11-e17.
  5. Affonso R., et al. Phytochemical composition, antioxidant activity, and the effect of the aqueous extract of coffee (Coffea Arabica L.) bean residual press cake on the skin wind healing. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016.
  6. Addy J., Oliphant T., and Harper R. A botanically derived skin surface lipid mimetic based on the composition of healthy 22-year-old females. Journal of Cosmetic Science. 2017;68:59-67.
  7. Solabla. “Dellpidol Product Information”.
  8. Vitamin E and Skin Health. Linus Pauling Institute. 07-Nov-2016. Retrieved from: http://lpl.oregonstate.edu/mic/health-disease/skin-health/vitamin-E.

dōTERRA Yarrow|Pom Cellular Beauty Complex Capsules

  1. Huy L., et al. Free radicals, antioxidants in disease and health. Int J Biomed Sci. 2008;4(2):89-96.
  2. Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid). University of Maryland Medical Center. 2017. Retrieved from: http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/supplement/vitamin-c-ascorbic-acid.
  3. Office of Dietary Supplements – Vitamin C. Retrieved from: https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminC-HealthProfessional/.
  4. Jacob R. and Sotoudeh G. Vitamin C function and status in chronic disease. Nutr. Clin. Care Off. 2002;5(2):66-74.
  5. Kidd P. Bioavailability and activity of phytosome complexes from botanical polyphenols: the silymarin, curcumin, green tea, and grape seed extracts. Altern. Med. Rev. J. Clin. Ther. 2009;14(3):226-246.
  6. Zinc. University of Maryland Medical Center. Retrieved from: http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/supplement/zinc.
  7. Rink L. and Gabriel P. Zinc and the immune system. Proc. Nutr. Soc. 2000;59(4):541-552.
  8. Nakajima S., et al. Oral supplementation with melon superoxide dismutase extract promotes antioxidant defences in the brain and prevents stress-induced impairment of spatial memory. Behav. Brain Res. 2009;200(1):15-21.
  9. Dumoulin M., et al. Clinical effects of an oral supplement rich in antioxidants on skin radiance in women. Clin. Cosmet. Investig. Dermatol. 2016;9:315-324.

Adaptiv Calming Blend Capsules and GABA

  1. National Institute of Mental Health. Mental illness. Retrieved from: https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/mental-illness.shtml#part_154785.
  2. Shamada M., et al. Anti-hypertensive effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-rich Chlorella on high-normal blood pressure and borderline hypertension in placebo-controlled double blind study. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2009;31(4):342-354.
  3. Hinton T., et al. Effect of GABA-fortified oolong tea on reducing stress in a university student cohort. Frontiers in Nutrition. 2019;26. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2019.00027.

Chemistry of Manuka Essential Oil

  1. Lis-Balchin M., et al. Pharmacological and antimicrobial studies on different tea-tree oils (Melaleuca alternifolia, Leptospermum scoparium or Manuka and Kunzea ericoides or Kanuka), originating in Australia and New Zealand. Phytotherapy Research. 2000;14(8):623-629.
  2. Christoph F., et al. In vitro evaluation of the antibacterial activity of beta-triketones admixed to Melaleuca oils. Planta Medica. 2001; 67(8):768-771.
  3. Takarada K., et al. A comparison of the antibacterial efficacies of essential oils against oral pathogens. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. 2004;19(1):61-64.
  4. Kwon O., et al. Topical administration of Manuka oil prevents UV-B irradiation-induced cutaneous photoaging in mice. Evidence Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine. 2013;
  5. Schnitzler P., et al. Comparative study on the cytotoxicity of different Myrtaceae essential oils on cultured vero and RC-37 cells. Pharm. 2008;63(11):830-835.
  6. Lis Balchin M., et al. An investigation of the actions of the essential oils of Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) and Kanuka (kunzea ericoides), Myrtaceae on guinea pig smooth muscle. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1998;50(7):809-811.

Peppermint Softgels

  1. Nair B. Final report on the safety assessment of Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Oil, Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Leaf Extract, Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Leaf, and Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Leaf Water. Int J Toxicol. 2001;20(3):61-73.
  2. Sun Z., et al. Chemical composition and anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of essential from the leaves of Mentha piperita grown in China. PloS One. 2014;12:e114767.
  3. Pattnaik S., et al. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of aromatic constituents of essential oils. Microbios. 1997;89(358):39-46.
  4. Papathanasopoulos A., et al. Effect of acute peppermint oil administration on gastric sensorimotor function and nutrient tolerance in health. Neurogastroenterol. Motil. Off. J. Eur. Gastrointest. Motil. Soc. 2013;25(4):e263-271.
  5. Hills J. and Aaronson P. The mechanism of action of peppermint oil on gastrointestinal smooth muscle. An analysis using patch clamp electrophysiology and isolated tissue pharmacology in rabbit and guinea pig. Gastroenterology. 1991;101(1):55-65.
  6. Inamori M., et al. Early effects of peppermint oil on gastric emptying: a crossover study using a continuous real-time 13C breath test (BreathID system). Journal of Gastroenterology. 2007;42(7):539-542.
  7. Alpsten M., et al. Gastric emptying and absorption of acetylsalicylic acid administered as enteric-coated micro-granules. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 1982;22(1):57-61.
  8. Park H., et al. Gastric emptying of enteric-coated tablets. Digestive Diseases and Sciences. 1984;29(3):207-212.

Why is Clinical Research Important?

  1. National Institutes of Health. NIH clinical trials and you. Retrieved from: https://www.nih.gov/health-information/nih-clinical-research-trials-you/basics
  2. Novitzke J. The significance of clinical trials. J Vasc Interv Neurol. 2008;1(1):31.

What is Proteomics?

  1. Fan H., et al. Authenticity analysis of citrus essential oils by HPLC-UV-MS on oxygenated heterocyclic components. J. Food Drug Anal. 2015;23:30-39.
  2. Urasaki Y. and Le T. Differentiation of essential oils using nanofluidic protein post-translational modification profiling. Molecules. 2019;24:2383

Rose Essential Oil

  1. Pereira F., et al. Antifungal activity of geraniol and citronellol, two monoterpenes alcohols, against Trichophyton rubrum involves inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis. Pharm. Biol. 2015;53(2):228-234.
  2. Wittig C., et al. Geraniol Suppresses Angiogenesis by Downregulating Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)/VEGFR-2 Signaling. PLoS One. 2015;10(7).
  3. Ayan M., et al. Investigating the Effect of Aromatherapy in Patients with Renal Colic. J. Altern. Complement. Med. 2013;19(4):329-333.
  4. Hongratanaworakit T. Relaxing effects of rose oil on humans. Nat. Prod. Commun. 2009;4(2):291-296.
  5. Hur M. and Han S. Clinical trial of aromatherapy on postpartum mother’s perineal healing. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi.2004;34(1):53-62.
  6. Ulusoy S., et al. Tocopherol, carotene, phenolic contents and antibacterial properties of rose essential oil, hydrosol and absolute. Curr. Microbiol. 2009;59(5):554-558.
  7. Basim E. and Basim H. Antibacterial activity of Rosa damascena essential oil. Fitoterapia. 2003;74(4):394-396.

Tamer Digestive Blend

  1. Hodge N., et al. A prospective randomized study of the effectiveness of aromatherapy for relief of postoperative nausea and vomiting. J. Perianesth. Nurs.2014;29(1):5-11.
  2. Farco J. and Grundmann O. Menthol--pharmacology of an important naturally medicinal “cool”. Mini Rev. Med. Chem. 2013;13(1):124-131.
  3. Yosipovitch G., et al. Effect of topically applied menthol on thermal, pain and itch sensations and biophysical properties of the skin. Arch. Dermatol. Res. 1996;288(5-6):245-248.
  4. Sritoomma N., et al. The effectiveness of Swedish massage with aromatic ginger oil in treating chronic low back pain in older adults: a randomized controlled trial. Complement. Ther. Med. 2014;22(1):26-33.
  5. Kristiniak J., et al. Black pepper essential oil to enhance intravenous catheter insertion in patients with poor vein visibility: A controlled study. J. Altern. Complement. Med. 2012;18(11):1003-1007.

Turmeric Dual Chamber Capsule

  1. Kalpravidh R., et al. Improvement in oxidative stress and antioxidant parameters in beta-thalessemia/Hb E patients treated with curcuminoids. Clinical Biochemistry. 2010;43(4-5):424-429.
  2. Chandran B. and Goel A. A randomized, pilot study to assess the efficacy and safety of curcumin in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. Phytotherapy Research. 2012;26(11):1719-1725.
  3. Kizhakkedath R. Clinical evaluation of a formulation containing Curcuma longa and Boswellia serrata extracts in the management of knee osteoarthritis. Mol. Med. Rep. 2013;8(5):1542-1548.
  4. Sunagawa Y., et al. Colloidal submicron-particle curcumin exhibits high absorption efficiency-a double-blind, 3-way crossover study. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2015;61(1):37-44.
  5. Toden S., et al. Curcumin mediates chemosensitization to 5-fluorouracil through miRNA-induced suppression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in chemoresistant colorectoral cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2015;36(3):355-367.
  6. Hucklenbroich J., et al. Aromatic-turmerone neural stem cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Stem Cell Research Therapy. 2014;5(4).
  7. Kim D., et al. Immune activation and antitumor response of ar-turmerone on P388D1 lymphoblast cell implanted tumors. International Journal of Molecular Medicine. 2013;31(2):386-392.
  8. Oh S., et al. Suppression of inflammatory cytokine production by ar-Turmerone isolated from Curcuma phaeocaulis. Chem Biodiversity. 2014;11(7):1034-1041.
  9. Lekshmi P., et al. Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) volatile oil inhibits key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes. Int J. Food Sci. Nutr. 2012;63(7):832-834.

Zembrin: Adaptiv Calming Blend Capsules

  1. Anxiety and Depression Association of America. Workplace stress & anxiety disorders survey. 2006. Retrieved from: https://adaa.org/workplace-stress-anxiety-disorders-survey.
  2. Smith M, et al. Psychoactive constituents of the genus Sceletium N.E.Br.and other Mesembryanthemaceae: A review. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1996;50(3):119-130.
  3. Krstenansky J. Mesembrine alkaloids: Review of their occurrence, chemistry, and pharmacology. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2017;195:10-19.
  4. Terburg D, et al. Acute effects of Sceletium tortuosum (Zembrin), a dual 5-HT reuptake and PDE4 inhibitor, in the human amygdala and its connection to the hypothalamus. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2013;38(13):2708-2716. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3828542/
  5. Dimpfel W, et al. Effect of Zembrin® on Brain Electrical Activity in 60 Older Subjects after 6 Weeks of Daily Intake. A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, 3-Armed Study in a Parallel Design. World J. Neurosci. 2017;7(1):140–171.
  6. S. Chiu et al. Proof-of-Concept Randomized Controlled Study of Cognition Effects of the Proprietary Extract Sceletium tortuosum (Zembrin) Targeting Phosphodiesterase-4 in Cognitively Healthy Subjects: Implications for Alzheimer’s Dementia. Evid.-Based Complement. Altern. Med. ECAM. 2014.
  7. Loria M, et al. Effects of Sceletium tortuosum in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2014;155(1):731-735.

Copaiba Softgels

  1. J. J. de Lima Silva et al., “Effects of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. on ischemia-reperfusion of randomized skin flaps in rats,” Aesthetic Plast. Surg., vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 104–109, Jan. 2009.
  2. C. Campos et al., “Effect of free and nanoencapsulated copaiba oil on monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension,” J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol., Oct. 2016.
  3. L. M. Leandro, F. de Sousa Vargas, P. C. S. Barbosa, J. K. O. Neves, J. A. da Silva, and V. F. da Veiga-Junior, “Chemistry and Biological Activities of Terpenoids from Copaiba (Copaifera spp.) Oleoresins,” Molecules, vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 3866–3889, Mar. 2012.
  4. N. de M. Gomes et al., “Antineoplasic activity of Copaifera multijuga oil and fractions against ascitic and solid Ehrlich tumor,” J. Ethnopharmacol., vol. 119, no. 1, pp. 179–184, Sep. 2008.
  5. Gertsch J, et al. Beta-caryophyllene is a dietary cannabinoid. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105(26):9099-9104.
  6. S. S. Dahham et al., “The Anticancer, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of the Sesquiterpene β-Caryophyllene from the Essential Oil of Aquilaria crassna,” Mol. Basel Switz., vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 11808–11829, 2015.

Get to Know doTERRA Balance® Grounding Blend

  1. Matsubara E., et al. The essential oil of Abies sibirica (Pinaceae) reduces arousal levels after visual display terminal work: Abies sibirica essential oil reduces arousal levels after work. Flavour Frag J. 2011;26(3):204-210.
  2. Linck V., et al. Inhaled linalool-induced sedation in mice. Phytomedicine Int. J. Phytother. Phytopharm. 2009;16(4):303-307.
  3. Kuroda K., et al. Sedative effects of the jasmine tea odor and (R)-(-)-linalool, one of its major odor components, on autonomic nerve activity and mood states. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2005;95(2-3):107-114.
  4. Hozumi H., et al. Aromatherapies using Osmanthus fragrans oil and grapefruit oil are effective complementary treatments for anxious patients undergoing colonoscopy: A randomized controlled study. Complement. Ther. Med. 2017;34:165-169.

What is Cedarwood Essential Oil Used For?

  1. Yada Y, Sadachi H, Nagashima Y, Suzuki T. Overseas survey of the effect of cedrol on the autonomic nervous system in three countries. J Physiol Anthropol. 2007;26(3):349–354.
  2. Dayawansa S, Umeno K, Takakura H, et al. Autonomic responses during inhalation of natural fragrance of “Cedrol” in humans. Auton Neurosci. 2003;108(1-2):79-86. doi:10.1016/j.autneu.2003.08.002
  3. Hori E, Shojaku H, Watanabe N, et al. Effects of direct cedrol inhalation into the lower airway on brain hemodynamics in totally laryngectomized subjects. Auton Neurosci. 2012;168(1–2):88-92. doi:10.1016/j.autneu.2012.01.010
  4. Jin MH, Park SG, Hwang Y-L, et al. Cedrol Enhances Extracellular Matrix Production in Dermal Fibroblasts in a MAPK-Dependent Manner. Ann Dermatol. 2012;24(1):16. doi:10.5021/ad.2012.24.1.16

doTERRA On Guard® Sanitizing Mist

  1.  C. A. O’Bryan, P. G. Crandall, V. I. Chalova, and S. C. Ricke, “Orange Essential Oils Antimicrobial Activities against Salmonella spp.,” J. Food Sci., vol. 73, no. 6, pp. M264–M267, Aug. 2008.
  2. J. Todd, M. Friedman, J. Patel, D. Jaroni, and S. Ravishankar, “The antimicrobial effects of cinnamon leaf oil against multi-drug resistant Salmonella Newport on organic leafy greens,” Int. J. Food Microbiol., vol. 166, no. 1, pp. 193–199, Aug. 2013.
  3. Y. Fu et al., “Antimicrobial activity of clove and rosemary essential oils alone and in combination,” Phytother. Res. PTR, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 989–994, Oct. 2007.
  4. Y. Fu et al., “The antibacterial activity of clove essential oil against Propionibacterium acnes and its mechanism of action,” Arch. Dermatol., vol. 145, no. 1, pp. 86–88, 2009.
  5. N. A. Gold and U. Avva, “Alcohol Sanitizer,” in StatPearls, Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing, 2018.

doTERRA Cananga Essential Oil

  1. 1. Bayala B., et al. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso. PLoS One. 2014;9(3):e92122.
  2. 2. Wei A. and Shibamoto T. Antioxidant Activities and Volatile Constituents of Various Essential Oils. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2007;55(5):1737-1742.
  3. 3. Da Silva E., et al. Chemical constituents and cytotoxic evaluation of essential oils from leaves of Porcelia macrocarpa (Annonaceae). Nat. Prod. Commun2013;8(2):277-279.
  4. 4. Ali B., et al. Essential oils used in aromatherapy: A systematic review. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed. 2015;5(8):601-611.

Alpha-Pinene and Limonene for Cellular Health

  1. Moayedi Y, Greenberg SA, Jenkins BA, et al. Camphor white oil induces tumor regression through cytotoxic T cell-dependent mechanisms. Mol Carcinog. 2018 Dec 23. doi: 10.1002/mc.22965. [Epub ahead of print]

What Supplements Help with Digestion? Try DigestZen Terrazyme®.

  1. http://americannutritionassociation.org/newsletter/digestive-issues   

The Science of Wintergreen 

  1. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/salicylic_acid
  2. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/aspirin
  3. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/methyl_salicylate
  4. Mason L, Moore RA, Edwards JE, McQuay HJ, Derry S, Wiffen PJ. Systematic review of efficacy of topical rubefacients containing salicylates for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. BMJ. 2004;328(7446):995. doi:10.1136/bmj.38040.607141.EE

Increase Your Sense of Focus with doTERRA Island Mint®

  1. Chaiyana W, Okonogi S. Inhibition of cholinesterase by essential oil from food plant. Phytomedicine Int J Phytother Phytopharm. 2012;19(8-9):836-839. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2012.03.010
  2. Ogeturk M, Kose E, Sarsilmaz M, Akpinar B, Kus I, Meydan S. Effects of lemon essential oil aroma on the learning behaviors of rats. Neurosci Riyadh Saudi Arab. 2010;15(4):292-293.
  3. Moss M, Hewitt S, Moss L, Wesnes K. MODULATION OF COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE AND MOOD BY AROMAS OF PEPPERMINT AND YLANG-YLANG. Int J Neurosci. 2008;118(1):59-77. doi:10.1080/00207450601042094
  4. Barker S, Grayhem P, Koon J, Perkins J, Whalen A, Raudenbush B. Improved performance on clerical tasks associated with administration of peppermint odor. Percept Mot Skills. 2003;97(3 Pt 1):1007-1010. doi:10.2466/pms.2003.97.3.1007

Natural Cleaning with doTERRA On Guard® Cleaner Concentrate

  1. 1. C. A. O’Bryan, P. G. Crandall, V. I. Chalova, and S. C. Ricke, “Orange Essential Oils Antimicrobial Activities against Salmonella spp.,” J. Food Sci., vol. 73, no. 6, pp. M264–M267, Aug. 2008.
  2. N. Sharma and A. Tripathi, “Effects of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck epicarp essential oil on growth and morphogenesis of Aspergillus niger (L.) Van Tieghem,” Microbiol. Res., vol. 163, no. 3, pp. 337–344, May 2008
  3. I. S. Rana, A. S. Rana, and R. C. Rajak, “Evaluation of antifungal activity in essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum (L.) by extraction, purification and analysis of its main component eugenol,” Braz. J. Microbiol. Publ. Braz. Soc. Microbiol., vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 1269–1277, Oct. 2011.
  4. A. Fraňková, M. Marounek, V. Mozrová, J. Weber, P. Klouček, and D. Lukešová, “Antibacterial activities of plant-derived compounds and essential oils toward Cronobacter sakazakii and Cronobacter malonaticus,” Foodborne Pathog. Dis., vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 795–797, Oct. 2014
  5.  Dadalioglu I, Evrendilek GA. Chemical compositions and antibacterial effects of essential oils of Turkish oregano (Origanum minutiflorum), bay laurel (Laurus nobilis), Spanish lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.), and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) on common foodborne pathogens. J Agric Food Chem. 2004;52(26):8255-8260. doi:10.1021/jf049033e
  6. Hammer KA, Carson CF, Riley TV. Antifungal activity of the components of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil. J Appl Microbiol. 2003;95(4):853-860.
  7. Yu D, Wang J, Shao X, Xu F, Wang H. Antifungal modes of action of tea tree oil and its two characteristic components against Botrytis cinerea. J Appl Microbiol. 2015;119(5):1253-1262. doi:10.1111/jam.12939

What Is Summer Savory Essential Oil?

  1. Sabzghabaee AM, Davoodi N, Ebadian B, Aslani A, Ghannadi A. Clinical evaluation of the essential oil of “Satureja Hortensis” for the treatment of denture stomatitis. Dent Res J. 2012;9(2):198-202.
  2. Hagh LG, Arefian A, Farajzade A, Dibazar S, Samiea N. The antibacterial activity of “Satureja hortensis” extract and essential oil against oral bacteria. Dent Res J. 2019;16(3):153-159.
  3. Silva FV, Guimarães AG, Silva ERS, et al. Anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer activities of carvacrol, a monoterpene present in the essential oil of oregano. J Med Food. 2012;15(11):984-991. doi:10.1089/jmf.2012.0102
  4. Fierascu I, Dinu-Pirvu CE, Fierascu RC, et al. Phytochemical Profile and Biological Activities of Satureja hortensis L.: A Review of the Last Decade. Mol J Synth Chem Nat Prod Chem. 2018;23(10). doi:10.3390/molecules23102458
  5. Aristatile B, Al-Numair KS, Veeramani C, Pugalendi KV. Antihyperlipidemic effect of carvacrol on D-galactosamine-induced hepatotoxic rats. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;20(1):15-27.

The Science of Aroma and Touch

  1. Hertenstein M, et al. Touch communicates distinct emotions. Emotion. 2006;6(3):528-533.
  2. Thompson E. and Hampton J. The effect of relationship status on communicating emotions through touch. Cognition and Emotion. 2011; 25(2):295-306.
  3. Chatel-Goldman J, et al. Touch increases autonomic coupling between romantic partners. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience. 2014; 8:95.
  4. Uvnas-Moberg, K, et al. Self-soothing behaviors with particular reference to oxytocin release induced by non-noxious sensory stimulation. Frontiers in Psychology. 2014; 5:1529.

The Science of Cypress

  1. M. Kusuhara, K. Urakami, Y. Masuda, V. Zangiacomi, H. Ishii, S. Tai, K. Maruyama, and K. Yamaguchi, “Fragrant environment with α-pinene decreases tumor growth in mice,” Biomed. Res. Tokyo Jpn., vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 57–61, Feb. 2012.
  2. H. J. Dorman and S. G. Deans, “Antimicrobial agents from plants: antibacterial activity of plant volatile oils,” J. Appl. Microbiol., vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 308–316, Feb. 2000.

Chemistry of Pink Pepper

  1. Siqueira HDS, Neto BS, Sousa DP, et al. α-Phellandrene, a cyclic monoterpene, attenuates inflammatory response through neutrophil migration inhibition and mast cell degranulation. Life Sci. 2016;160:27-33. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2016.07.008
  2. Lin J-J, Lin J-H, Hsu S-C, et al. Alpha-phellandrene promotes immune responses in normal mice through enhancing macrophage phagocytosis and natural killer cell activities. Vivo Athens Greece. 2013;27(6):809-814.
  3. Jing L, Zhang Y, Fan S, et al. Preventive and ameliorating effects of citrus D-limonene on dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Eur J Pharmacol. 2013;715(1-3):46-55. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2013.06.022

Keeping Pets Healthy and Happy

  1. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-16118-6
  2. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0091674917314392 
  3. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3408111/ 

Lemon Myrtle

  1. 1Wilkinson JM, Hipwell M, Ryan T, Cavanagh HMA. Bioactivity of Backhousia citriodora: antibacterial and antifungal activity. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51(1):76-81. doi:10.1021/jf0258003
  2. Kim J m., Marshall M, Cornell J a., Iii J f. P, Wei C i. Antibacterial Activity of Carvacrol, Citral, and Geraniol against Salmonella typhimurium in Culture Medium and on Fish Cubes. J Food Sci. 1995;60(6):1364-1368. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1995.tb04592.x
  3. Subramaniyan SD, Natarajan A kumar. Citral, A Monoterpene Protect Against High Glucose Induced Oxidative Injury in HepG2 Cell In Vitro-An Experimental Study. J Clin Diagn Res JCDR. 2017;11(8):BC10-BC15. doi:10.7860/JCDR/2017/28470.10377
  4. Uchida NS, Silva-Filho SE, Cardia GFE, et al. Hepatoprotective Effect of Citral on Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Toxicity in Mice. Evid-Based Complement Altern Med ECAM. 2017;2017. doi:10.1155/2017/1796209

doTERRA Breathe® and the Science of Sighing

  1. Vlemincx E, Van diest I, Van den bergh O. Emotion, sighing, and respiratory variability. Psychophysiology. 2015;52(5):657-66.
  2. Tobin MJ, Chadha TS, Jenouri G, Birch SJ, Gazeroglu HB, Sackner MA. Breathing patterns. 2. Diseased subjects. Chest. 1983;84(3):286-94.
  3. Vlemincx E, Van diest I, Van den bergh O. A sigh of relief or a sigh to relieve: The psychological and physiological relief effect of deep breaths. Physiol Behav. 2016;165:127-35.
  4. Zhao C, Sun J, Fang C, Tang F. 1,8-cineol attenuates LPS-induced acute pulmonary inflammation in mice. Inflammation. 2014;37(2):566-72.

  5. Lee HS, Park DE, Song WJ, et al. Effect of 1.8-Cineole in Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus-Stimulated Bronchial Epithelial Cells and Mouse Model of Asthma. Biol Pharm Bull. 2016;39(6):946-52.

  6. Sudhoff H, Klenke C, Greiner JF, et al. 1,8-Cineol Reduces Mucus-Production in a Novel Human Ex Vivo Model of Late Rhinosinusitis. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(7):e0133040.

  7. Seol GH, Kim KY. Eucalyptol and Its Role in Chronic Diseases. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016;929:389-398.

  8. Laude EA, Morice AH, Grattan TJ. The antitussive effects of menthol, camphor and cineole in conscious guinea-pigs. Pulm Pharmacol. 1994;7(3):179-84.

  9. Liu B, Fan L, Balakrishna S, Sui A, Morris JB, Jordt SE. TRPM8 is the principal mediator of menthol-induced analgesia of acute and inflammatory pain. Pain. 2013;154(10):2169-77.

  10. Ha MA, Smith GJ, Cichocki JA, et al. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation and elevates blood cotinine in cigarette smoke exposed mice. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(2):e0117128.

  11. Willis DN, Liu B, Ha MA, Jordt SE, Morris JB. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation responses to multiple cigarette smoke irritants. FASEB J. 2011;25(12):4434-44.

Yarrow|Pom

  1. Shabbir MA, Khan MR, Saeed M, Pasha I, Khalil AA, Siraj N. Punicic acid: A striking health substance to combat metabolic syndromes in humans. Lipids Health Dis. 2017;16(1):99.

Fennel Oil and Curcumin Extract for Bowel Regularity

  1. Di Ciaula A, Portincasa P, Maes N, et al. Efficacy of bio-optimized extracts of turmeric and essential fennel oil on the quality of life in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Ann Gastroenterol. 2018;31(6):685-691.doi: 10.20524/aog.2018.0304

Copaiba Meta-Analysis

  1. Ferro M, et al. Meta-analysis on Copaiba Oil: Its Functions in Metabolism and Its Properties as an Anti-inflammatory Agent. Thieme. 2018. DOI:10.1055/s-0038-1669390.

Peppermint Essential Oil and Cognitive Function

  1. Kennedy D, Okello E, Chazot P, et al. Volatile Terpenes and Brain Function: Investigation of the Cognitive and Mood Effects of Mentha × Piperita L. Essential Oil with In Vitro Properties Relevant to Central Nervous System Function. Nutrients. 2018;10(8). pii: E1029. doi: 10.3390/nu10081029.

Essential Oil Mouthwash Trials

  1. Richards D. Effect of essential oil mouthwashes on plaque and gingivitis. Evid Based Dent. 2017 Jun 23;18(2):39-40. doi: 10.1038/sj.ebd.6401233.
  2. Marieb, E. N., Hoehn, K., & Hutchinson, M. (2013). Human anatomy & physiology. San Francisco, CA: Pearson Education/Benjamin Cummings.

Gastroprotective Effects of Ginger and Turmeric Essential Oils

  1.  Liju VB, Jeena K, Kuttan R. Gastroprotective activity of essential oils from turmeric and ginger. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2015;26(1):95-103. 

Turmeric Essential Oil

  1. Chandran, Binu, and Ajay Goel. “A Randomized, Pilot Study to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Curcumin in Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis.” Phytotherapy research: PTR 26.11 (2012): 1719–1725.
  2. Park SY, Kim YH, Kim Y, Lee SJ. Aromatic-turmerone's anti-inflammatory effects in microglial cells are mediated by protein kinase A and heme oxygenase-1 signaling. Neurochem Int. 2012;61(5):767-77.

AromaTouch® Hand Technique Study

  1. Bahr T, Allred K, Martinez D, Rodriguez D, and Winterton P. Effects of a massage-like essential oil application procedure using Copaiba and Deep Blue oils in individuals with hand arthritis. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2018.10.004.

Carvone

  1. J. C. R. Gonçalves, F. de S. Oliveira, R. B. Benedito, D. P. de Sousa, R. N. de Almeida, and D. A. M. de Araújo, “Antinociceptive activity of (-)-carvone: evidence of association with decreased peripheral nerve excitability,” Biol. Pharm. Bull., vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 1017–1020, 2008.
  2. F. V. M. Souza, M. B. da Rocha, D. P. de Souza, and R. M. Marçal, “(−)-Carvone: Antispasmodic effect and mode of action,” Fitoterapia, vol. 85, pp. 20–24, Mar. 2013.
  3. E. Ayd n, H. Turkez, and M. S. Keles, “Potential anticancer activity of carvone in N2a neuroblastoma cell line,” Toxicol. Ind. Health, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 764–772, Aug. 2015.
  4. S. Abe et al., “Suppression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced neutrophil adherence responses by essential oils.,” Mediators Inflamm., vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 323–328, Dec. 2003.
  5. D. P. De Sousa, F. F. De Farias nóbrega, and R. N. De Almeida, “Influence of the chirality of (R)-(−)- and (S)-(+)-carvone in the central nervous system: A comparative study,” Chirality, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 264–268, May 2007.
  6. J. C. R. Gonçalves, A. de M. H. Alves, A. E. V. de Araújo, J. S. Cruz, and D. A. M. Araújo, “Distinct effects of carvone analogues on the isolated nerve of rats,” Eur. J. Pharmacol., vol. 645, no. 1–3, pp. 108–112, Oct. 2010.
  7. N. A. Jaradat et al., “The effect of inhalation of Citrus sinensis flowers and Mentha spicata leave essential oils on lung function and exercise performance: a quasi-experimental uncontrolled before-and-after study,” J. Int. Soc. Sports Nutr., vol. 13, no. 1, Dec. 2016.

Cinnamaldehyde

  1. M. Keshvari, S. Asgary, A. Jafarian-Dehkordi, S. Najafi, and S. M. Ghoreyshi-Yazdi, “Preventive effect of cinnamon essential oil on lipid oxidation of vegetable oil,” ARYA Atheroscler., vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 280–286, Sep. 2013.
  2. S.-G. Ahn, Y.-H. Jin, J.-H. Yoon, and S.-A. Kim, “The anticancer mechanism of 2’-hydroxycinnamaldehyde in human head and neck cancer cells,” Int. J. Oncol., vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 1793–1800, Nov. 2015.
  3. W.-Y. Bae, J.-S. Choi, J.-E. Kim, and J.-W. Jeong, “Cinnamic aldehyde suppresses hypoxia-induced angiogenesis via inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression during tumor progression,” Biochem. Pharmacol., vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 41–50, Nov. 2015.
  4. J. S. Muhammad et al., “Anti-inflammatory effect of cinnamaldehyde in Helicobacter pylori induced gastric inflammation,” Biol. Pharm. Bull., vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 109–115, 2015.
  5. M. S. Nieto-Bobadilla et al., “Controlled delivery of a new broad spectrum antibacterial agent against colitis: In vitro and in vivo performance,” Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. Off. J. Arbeitsgemeinschaft Für Pharm. Verfahrenstechnik EV, vol. 96, pp. 152–161, Oct. 2015.
  6. L.-T. Lin, S.-J. Wu, and C.-C. Lin, “The Anticancer Properties and Apoptosis-inducing Mechanisms of Cinnamaldehyde and the Herbal Prescription Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (黃連解毒湯 Huáng Lián Jiě Dú Tang) in Human Hepatoma Cells,” J. Tradit. Complement. Med., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 227–233, 2013.
  7. A. Mishra, R. Bhatti, A. Singh, and M. P. Singh Ishar, “Ameliorative effect of the cinnamon oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum upon early stage diabetic nephropathy,” Planta Med., vol. 76, no. 5, pp. 412–417, Mar. 2010.
  8. Y.-H. Chen, Y.-N. Lin, W.-C. Chen, W.-T. Hsieh, and H.-Y. Chen, “Treatment of Stress Urinary Incontinence by Cinnamaldehyde, the Major Constituent of the Chinese Medicinal Herb Ramulus Cinnamomi,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med., vol. 2014, pp. 1–10, 2014.
  9. J. Huang, S. Wang, X. Luo, Y. Xie, and X. Shi, “Cinnamaldehyde reduction of platelet aggregation and thrombosis in rodents,” Thromb. Res., vol. 119, no. 3, pp. 337–342, Jan. 2007.
  10. J. Zhao et al., “Cinnamaldehyde inhibits inflammation and brain damage in a mouse model of permanent cerebral ischaemia,” Br. J. Pharmacol., vol. 172, no. 20, pp. 5009–5023, Oct. 2015.
  11. S.-T. Chou, W.-L. Chang, C.-T. Chang, S.-L. Hsu, Y.-C. Lin, and Y. Shih, “Cinnamomum cassia Essential Oil Inhibits α-MSH-Induced Melanin Production and Oxidative Stress in Murine B16 Melanoma Cells,” Int. J. Mol. Sci., vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 19186–19201, Sep. 2013.
  12. M. Saleem, H. N. Bhatti, M. I. Jilani, and M. A. Hanif, “Bioanalytical evaluation of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil,” Nat. Prod. Res., vol. 29, no. 19, pp. 1857–1859, 2015.
  13. S. F. Nabavi, A. Di Lorenzo, M. Izadi, E. Sobarzo-Sánchez, M. Daglia, and S. M. Nabavi, “Antibacterial Effects of Cinnamon: From Farm to Food, Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical Industries,” Nutrients, vol. 7, no. 9, pp. 7729–7748, Sep. 2015.
  14. N. Takasao, K. Tsuji-Naito, S. Ishikura, A. Tamura, and M. Akagawa, “Cinnamon extract promotes type I collagen biosynthesis via activation of IGF-I signaling in human dermal fibroblasts,” J. Agric. Food Chem., vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 1193–1200, Feb. 2012.

Cuminal/Cuminaldehyde

  1. V. R. Preedy, Ed., Essential Oils in Food Preservation, Flavor and Safety, 1 edition. Boston, MA: Academic Press, 2015.
  2. H.-S. Lee, “Cuminaldehyde:  Aldose Reductase and α-Glucosidase Inhibitor Derived from Cuminum cyminum L. Seeds,” J. Agric. Food Chem., vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 2446–2450, Apr. 2005.
  3. J. Wei, X. Zhang, Y. Bi, R. Miao, Z. Zhang, and H. Su, “Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Cumin Essential Oil by Blocking JNK, ERK, and NF-κB Signaling Pathways in LPS-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells,” Evid.-Based Complement. Altern. Med. ECAM, vol. 2015, 2015.
  4. K. Tsai et al., “Cuminaldehyde from Cinnamomum verum Induces Cell Death through Targeting Topoisomerase 1 and 2 in Human Colorectal Adenocarcinoma COLO 205 Cells,” Nutrients, vol. 8, no. 6, p. 318, May 2016.
  5. S. Yang et al., “Molecular Mechanism of Cinnamomum verum Component Cuminaldehyde Inhibits Cell Growth and Induces Cell Death in Human Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma NCI-H520 Cells In Vitro and In Vivo,” J. Cancer, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 251–261, Jan. 2016.

Carvacrol

  1. Chen W, Xu B, Xiao A, et al. TRPM7 inhibitor carvacrol protects brain from neonatal hypoxic-ischemic injury. Mol Brain. 2015;8:11.
  2. Li WT, Zhang SY, Zhou YF, et al. Carvacrol attenuates traumatic neuronal injury through store-operated Ca(2+) entry-independent regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. Neurochem Int. 2015;90:107-13.
  3. Chen WL, Barszczyk A, Turlova E, et al. Inhibition of TRPM7 by carvacrol suppresses glioblastoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Oncotarget. 2015;6(18):16321-40.Fan K, Li X, Cao Y, et al. Carvacrol inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in human colon cancer cells. Anticancer Drugs. 2015;26(8):813-23.
  4. Suntres ZE, Coccimiglio J, Alipour M. The bioactivity and toxicological actions of carvacrol. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2015;55(3):304-18.
  5. Lee KP, Sudjarwo GW, Jung SH, et al. Carvacrol inhibits atherosclerotic neointima formation by downregulating reactive oxygen species production in vascular smooth muscle cells. Atherosclerosis. 2015;240(2):367-73.
  6. Fan K, Li X, Cao Y, et al. Carvacrol inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in human colon cancer cells. Anticancer Drugs. 2015;26(8):813-23.
  7. Maryam K, Shakeri S, Kiani K. Preparation and in vitro investigation of antigastric cancer activities of carvacrol-loaded human serum albumin nanoparticles. IET Nanobiotechnol. 2015;9(5):294-9.
  8. Liang WZ, Chou CT, Lu T, et al. The mechanism of carvacrol-evoked [Ca2+]i rises and non-Ca2+-triggered cell death in OC2 human oral cancer cells. Toxicology. 2013;303:152-61.
  9. Jayakumar S, Madankumar A, Asokkumar S, et al. Potential preventive effect of carvacrol against diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma in rats. Mol Cell Biochem. 2012;360(1-2):51-60.
  10. Luo Y, Wu JY, Lu MH, Shi Z, Na N, Di JM. Carvacrol Alleviates Prostate Cancer Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion through Regulation of PI3K/Akt and MAPK Signaling Pathways. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016;2016:1469693.
  11. Arunasree KM. Anti-proliferative effects of carvacrol on a human metastatic breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB 231. Phytomedicine. 2010;17(8-9):581-8.
  12. Sánchez C, Aznar R, Sánchez G. The effect of carvacrol on enteric viruses. Int J Food Microbiol. 2015;192:72-6.
  13. Pastor J, García M, Steinbauer S, et al. Combinations of ascaridole, carvacrol, and caryophyllene oxide against Leishmania. Acta Trop. 2015;145:31-8.
  14. Tabari MA, Youssefi MR, Barimani A, Araghi A. Carvacrol as a potent natural acaricide against Dermanyssus gallinae. Parasitol Res. 2015;114(10):3801-6.
  15. Mansour SA, Messeha SS, El-gengaihi SE. Botanical biocides. 4. Mosquitocidal activity of certain Thymus capitatus constituents. J Nat Toxins. 2000;9(1):49-62.
  16. Joca HC, Vieira DC, Vasconcelos AP, Araújo DA, Cruz JS. Carvacrol modulates voltage-gated sodium channels kinetics in dorsal root ganglia. Eur J Pharmacol. 2015;756:22-9.
  17. Kara M, Uslu S, Demirci F, Temel HE, Baydemir C. Supplemental carvacrol can reduce the severity of inflammation by influencing the production of mediators of inflammation. Inflammation. 2015;38(3):1020-7.

Bornyl Acetate

  1. Watanabe K, Shimizu N. Identification of a sex pheromone of the chrysanthemum lace bug Corythucha marmorata (Hemiptera: Tingidae). Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 4;7(1):7302. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-06783-y.
  2. Matsubara E, Fukagawa M, Okamoto T, Ohnuki K, Shimizu K, Kondo R. (-)-Bornyl acetate induces autonomic relaxation and reduces arousal level after visual display terminal work without any influences of task performance in low-dose condition. Biomed Res. 2011 Apr;32(2):151-7.
  3. Buchbauer G, Jäger W, Jirovetz L, Meyer F, Dietrich H. [Effects of valerian root oil, borneol, isoborneol, bornyl acetate and isobornyl acetate on the motility of laboratory animals (mice) after inhalation]. Pharmazie. 1992 Aug;47(8):620-2. German.
  4. Yang H, Zhao R, Chen H, Jia P, Bao L, Tang H. Bornyl acetate has an anti-inflammatory effect in human chondrocytes via induction of IL-11. IUBMB Life. 2014 Dec;66(12):854-9. doi: 10.1002/iub.1338. Epub 2014 Dec 25.
  5. Chen N, Sun G, Yuan X, Hou J, Wu Q, Soromou LW, Feng H. Inhibition of lung inflammatory responses by bornyl acetate is correlated with regulation of myeloperoxidase activity. J Surg Res. 2014 Jan;186(1):436-45. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2013.09.003. Epub 2013 Sep 29.
  6. Wu X, Li X, Xiao F, Zhang Z, Xu Z, Wang H. [Studies on the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of bornyl acetate in volatile oil from Amomum villosum].Zhong Yao Cai. 2004 Jun;27(6):438-9. Chinese.
  7.  Li J, Wang SX. Synergistic enhancement of the antitumor activity of 5-fluorouracil by bornyl acetate in SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cells and the determination of the underlying mechanism of action. J BUON. 2016 Jan-Feb;21(1):108-17.
  8. Kim SH, Lee SY, Hong CY, Gwak KS, Park MJ, Smith D, Choi IG. Whitening and antioxidant activities of bornyl acetate and nezukol fractionated from Cryptomeria japonica essential oil. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2013 Oct;35(5):484-90. doi: 10.1111/ics.12069. Epub 2013 Jul 6.

doTERRA Black Pepper Study

  1. Han X., Beaumont C., Rodriguez D., and Bahr T. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) essential oil demonstrates tissue remodeling and metabolism modulating potential in human cells. Phytotherapy Research.2018. doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6110.
  2. Jeena K, Liju VB, Umadevi NP, Kuttan R. 2014. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties of black pepper essential oil (Piper nigrum Linn). J Essent Oil Bear Plants.17:1–12.
  3. Varga ZV, Matyas C, Erdelyi K, Cinar R, Nieri D, Chicca A, Nemeth BT, Paloczi J, Lajtos T, Corey L, et al. 2017. Beta-caryophyllene protects against alcoholic steatohepatitis by attenuating inflammation and metabolic dysregulation in mice. Br J Pharmacol. 13722.

doTERR AromaTouch Study

Bahr T, Rodriguez D, Allred K. Immediate and Lasting Effects of the dōTERRA AromaTouch Technique, a Topical Essential Oil Application Procedure, on Autonomic Function and Salivary Biomarkers: A Pilot Trial. J Integrative Med Ther. 2018;5(1): 7.


Nerol

  1. González-Ramírez AE, González-Trujano ME, Orozco-Suárez SA, et al. Nerol alleviates pathologic markers in the oxazolone-induced colitis model. Eur J Pharmacol. 2016;776:81-89. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2016.02.036

Eugenol

  1. G. P. Kamatou, I. Vermaak, and A. M. Viljoen, “Eugenol—From the Remote Maluku Islands to the International Market Place: A Review of a Remarkable and Versatile Molecule,” Molecules, vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 6953–6981, Jun. 2012.
  2. M. Islamuddin, D. Sahal, and F. Afrin, “Apoptosis-like death in Leishmania donovani promastigotes induced by eugenol-rich oil of Syzygium aromaticum,” J. Med. Microbiol., vol. 63, no. Pt_1, pp. 74–85, Jan. 2014.
  3. B. Yogalakshmi, P. Viswanathan, and C. V. Anuradha, “Investigation of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and DNA-protective properties of eugenol in thioacetamide-induced liver injury in rats,” Toxicology, vol. 268, no. 3, pp. 204–212, Feb. 2010.
  4. Y. Saeki, Y. Ito, M. Shibata, Y. Sato, K. Okuda, and I. Takazoe, “Antimicrobial action of natural substances on oral bacteria,” Bull. Tokyo Dent. Coll., vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 129–135, Aug. 1989.
  5. S. V. Kothiwale, V. Patwardhan, M. Gandhi, R. Sohoni, and A. Kumar, “A comparative study of antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of herbal mouthrinse containing tea tree oil, clove, and basil with commercially available essential oil mouthrinse,” J. Indian Soc. Periodontol., vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 316–320, May 2014.
  6. S. A. Guénette, A. Ross, J.-F. Marier, F. Beaudry, and P. Vachon, “Pharmacokinetics of eugenol and its effects on thermal hypersensitivity in rats,” Eur. J. Pharmacol., vol. 562, no. 1–2, pp. 60–67, May 2007.

doTERRA Black Pepper Study

  1. Han X., Beamont C., Rodriguez D., and Bahr T. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) essential oil demonstrates tissue remodeling and metabolism modulating potential in human cells. Phytotherapy Research.2018. doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6110.
  2. Jeena K, Liju VB, Umadevi NP, Kuttan R. 2014. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties of black pepper essential oil (Piper nigrum Linn). J Essent Oil Bear Plants.17:1–12.
  3. Varga ZV, Matyas C, Erdelyi K, Cinar R, Nieri D, Chicca A, Nemeth BT, Paloczi J, Lajtos T, Corey L, et al. 2017. Beta-caryophyllene protects against alcoholic steatohepatitis by attenuating inflammation and metabolic dysregulation in mice. Br J Pharmacol. 13722.

Chamazulene

  1. Capuzzo A, Occhipinti A, Maffei ME. Antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of chamazulene. Nat Prod Res. 2014;28(24):2321-3.
  2. Rekka EA, Kourounakis AP, Kourounakis PN. Investigation of the effect of chamazulene on lipid peroxidation and free radical processes. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol. 1996;92(3):361-4.
  3. Querio G, Antoniotti S, Foglietta F, et al. Chamazulene Attenuates ROS Levels in Bovine Aortic Endothelial Cells Exposed to High Glucose Concentrations and Hydrogen Peroxide. Front Physiol. 2018;9:246.
  4. Ornano L, Venditti A, Ballero M, et al. Chemopreventive and antioxidant activity of the chamazulene-rich essential oil obtained from Artemisia arborescens L. growing on the Isle of La Maddalena, Sardinia, Italy. Chem Biodivers. 2013;10(8):1464-74.
  5. Agatonovic-kustrin S, Babazadeh ortakand D, Morton DW, Yusof AP. Rapid evaluation and comparison of natural products and antioxidant activity in calendula, feverfew, and German chamomile extracts. J Chromatogr A. 2015;1385:103-10.
  6. Mohammadi A, Sani TA, Ameri AA, Imani M, Golmakani E, Kamali H. Seasonal variation in the chemical composition, antioxidant activity, and total phenolic content of Artemisia absinthium essential oils. Pharmacognosy Res. 2014;7(4):329-34.
  7. Ramadan M, Goeters S, Watzer B, et al. Chamazulene carboxylic acid and matricin: a natural profen and its natural prodrug, identified through similarity to synthetic drug substances. J Nat Prod. 2006;69(7):1041-5.

Bees and Essential Oils

  1. Imdorf A, Bogdanov S, Ochoa RI, Calderone NW. Use of essential oils for the control of Varroa jacobsoni Oud. in honey bee colonies. Apidologie. 1999;30: 209-228.
  2. Sabahi Q, Gashout H, Kelly PG, Guzman-Novoa E. Continuous release of oregano oil effectively and safely controls Varroa destructor infestations in honey bee colonies in a northern climate. Experimental & Applied Acarology. 2017;72(3):263-275.
  3. Palmer-young EC, Sadd BM, Irwin RE, Adler LS. Synergistic effects of floral phytochemicals against a bumble bee parasite. Ecol Evol. 2017;7(6):1836-1849.


doTERRA On Guard® Study

  1. Berg, E. L., Yang, J., Melrose, J., Nguyen, D., Privat, S., Rosler, E., . . . Ekins, S. (2010). Chemical target and pathway toxicity mechanisms defined in primary human cell systems. Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods, 61(1), 3-15
  2. Bergamini, G., Bell, K., Shimamura, S., Werner, T., Cansfield, A., Müller, K., … Neubauer, G. (2012). A selective inhibitor reveals PI3Kγ dependence of T(H)17 cell differentiation. Nature Chemical Biology, 8(6), 576–582. https://doi.org/10.1038/nchembio.957
  3. Han, X., Parker, T. L., & Dorsett, J. (2017). An essential oil blend significantly modulates immune responses and the cell cycle in human cell cultures. Cogent Biology, 3(1), 1340112. https://doi.org/10.1080/23312025.2017.1340112

Chemistry of doTERRA Breathe® Respiratory Drops

  1. Begrow F, Böckenholt C, Ehmen M, Wittig T, Verspohl EJ. Effect of myrtol standardized and other substances on the respiratory tract: ciliary beat frequency and mucociliary clearance as parameters. Adv Ther. 2012;29(4):350-8.

  2. Zhao C, Sun J, Fang C, Tang F. 1,8-cineol attenuates LPS-induced acute pulmonary inflammation in mice. Inflammation. 2014;37(2):566-72.

  3. Lee HS, Park DE, Song WJ, et al. Effect of 1.8-Cineole in Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus-Stimulated Bronchial Epithelial Cells and Mouse Model of Asthma. Biol Pharm Bull. 2016;39(6):946-52.

  4. Sudhoff H, Klenke C, Greiner JF, et al. 1,8-Cineol Reduces Mucus-Production in a Novel Human Ex Vivo Model of Late Rhinosinusitis. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(7):e0133040.

  5. Seol GH, Kim KY. Eucalyptol and Its Role in Chronic Diseases. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016;929:389-398.

  6. Laude EA, Morice AH, Grattan TJ. The antitussive effects of menthol, camphor and cineole in conscious guinea-pigs. Pulm Pharmacol. 1994;7(3):179-84.

  7. Liu B, Fan L, Balakrishna S, Sui A, Morris JB, Jordt SE. TRPM8 is the principal mediator of menthol-induced analgesia of acute and inflammatory pain. Pain. 2013;154(10):2169-77.

  8. Ha MA, Smith GJ, Cichocki JA, et al. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation and elevates blood cotinine in cigarette smoke exposed mice. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(2):e0117128.

  9. Willis DN, Liu B, Ha MA, Jordt SE, Morris JB. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation responses to multiple cigarette smoke irritants. FASEB J. 2011;25(12):4434-44.

  10. Ozogul Y, Kuley E, Ucar Y, Ozogul F. Antimicrobial Impacts of Essential Oils on Food Borne-Pathogens. Recent Pat Food Nutr Agric. 2015;7(1):53-61.

  11. Bacanlı M, Başaran AA, Başaran N. The antioxidant and antigenotoxic properties of citrus phenolics limonene and naringin. Food Chem Toxicol. 2015;81:160-70.

  12. De sousa DP, Mesquita RF, De araújo ribeiro LA, De lima JT. Spasmolytic Activity of Carvone and Limonene Enantiomers. Nat Prod Commun. 2015;10(11):1893-6.

  13. Valente J, Zuzarte M, Gonçalves MJ, et al. Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;62:349-54.

  14. Glisic, S., Milojevic, S., Dimitrijevic, S., Orlovic, A., & Skala, D. (2007). Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and different fractions of Juniperus communis L. and a comparison with some commercial antibiotics. Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society, 72(4), 311-320. doi:10.2298/jsc0704311g

  15. Berger, R. G. (2007). Flavours and fragrances: Chemistry, bioprocessing and sustainability. Berlin: Springer.

  16. Li H, Yang T, Li FY, Yao Y, Sun ZM. Antibacterial activity and mechanism of action of Monarda punctata essential oil and its main components against common bacterial pathogens in respiratory tract. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014;7(11):7389-98.

doTERRA Cinnamon Bark Study

Han X, Parker TL. Antiinflammatory Activity of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) Bark Essential Oil in a Human Skin Disease Model. Phytotherapy Research. 2017;31(7):1034-1038. doi:10.1002/ptr.5822.
 

Skin Cells and Essential Oils

  1. Han, X., Beaumont, C., Stevens, N., & Parker, T. L. (2017). Chemical composition analysis and in vitro biological activities of ten essential oils in human skin cells. Biochimie Open. doi:10.1016/j.biopen.2017.04.001
  2. Berg, E. L., Yang, J., Melrose, J., Nguyen, D., Privat, S., Rosler, E., . . . Ekins, S. (2010). Chemical target and pathway toxicity mechanisms defined in primary human cell systems. Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods, 61(1), 3-15
  3. Bergamini, G., Bell, K., Shimamura, S., Werner, T., Cansfield, A., Müller, K., … Neubauer, G. (2012). A selective inhibitor reveals PI3Kγ dependence of T(H)17 cell differentiation. Nature Chemical Biology, 8(6), 576–582. https://doi.org/10.1038/nchembio.957

Caryophyllene Supports Osteoblast Function

  1. Shan, J., Chen, L., & Lu, K. (2016). Protective effects of trans-caryophyllene on maintaining osteoblast function. IUBMB Life, 69(1), 22-29. doi:10.1002/iub.1584
  2. Marieb, E. N., Hoehn, K., & Hutchinson, M. (2013). Human anatomy & physiology. San Francisco, CA: Pearson Education/Benjamin Cummings.

doTERRA Bergamot Study

  1. Chang K and Shen W. Aromatherapy benefits autonomic nervous system regulation for elementary school faculty in Taiwan. Evid.-Based Complement. Altern. Med. ECAM. 2011;2011:946537.
  2. Ni C, et al .The Anxiolytic Effect of Aromatherapy on Patients Awaiting Ambulatory Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med. 2013;2013:1–5.
  3. Watanabe E, et al. Mood enhancement by bergamot (Citrus bergamia (Risso) Wright & Arn.) volatile oil vapor with regards to personality and lifestyle related changes in salivary cortisol levels: A randomized cross-over trial. Planta Med. 2013;79(13).
  4. Watanabe E, et al. Effects of bergamot (Citrus bergamia (Risso) Wright & Arn.) essential oil aromatherapy on mood states, parasympathetic nervous system activity, and salivary cortisol levels in 41 healthy females. Forsch. KomplementärmedizinResearch Complement. Med.2015;22(1):43–49.
  5. Han X, Gibson J, eggett D, and Parker T. Bergamot (Citrus bergamia) essential oil inhalation improves positives feelings in the waiting room of a mental health treatment center: A pilot study. Phytotherapy research. 2017. DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5806.

Linalyl Acetate

  1. Igarashi T. Physical and psychologic effects of aromatherapy inhalation on pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2013;19(10):805-810.
  2. Peana A, et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of linalool and linalyl acetate constituents of essential oils. Phytomedicine Int. J. Phytother. Phytopharm. 2002;9(8):721–726.
  3. Barocelli E.Antinociceptive and gastroprotective effects of inhaled and orally administered Lavandula hybrida Reverchon Grosso essential oil. Life Sci. 2004;76(2):213–223.
  4. Tadtong S, et al. Antimicrobial activity of blended essential oil preparation. Nat. Prod. Commun.2012;7(10):1401–1404. 

Linalool and GABA Receptors

Milanos S, Elsharif SA, Janzen D, Buettner A, Villmann C. Metabolic Products of Linalool and Modulation of GABA<sub>A</sub> Receptors. Front Chem. 2017 Jun 21;5:46. doi: 10.3389/fchem.2017.00046. eCollection 2017.
 

doTERRA Clove Study

Han et al. 2017. Anti-inflammatory activity of clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) essential oil in human dermal fibroblasts. Pharmaceutical Biology, 55(1), 1619–1622. https://doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2017.1314513.
 

Neurologic Health and Cinnamaldehyde

Bae WY, Choi JS, Jeong JW. The Neuroprotective Effects of Cinnamic Aldehyde in an MPTP Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19(2). pii: E551. doi: 10.3390/ijms19020551.
 

Plant Enzymes Synthesize Essential Oil Constituents

Filipe A, Cardoso JCR, Miguel G et al. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of a monoterpene synthase isolated from the aromatic wild shrub Thymus albicans. J Plant Physiol. 2017 Jul 21;218:35-44. doi: 10.1016/j.jplph.2017.07.013.
 

Menthol

  1. Kamatou G, et al. Menthol: a simple monoterpene with remarkable biological properties. Phytochemistry. 2013;96:15–25.
  2. Yosipovitch G, et al. Effect of topically applied menthol on thermal, pain and itch sensations and biophysical properties of the skin. Arch. Dermatol. Res. 1996;288(5-6):245–248.
  3. Samber N, et al. Synergistic anti-candidal activity and mode of action of Mentha piperita essential oil and its major components. Pharm. Biol. 2015;53(10):1496–1504.
  4. A. M. Sabzghabaee A, et al. Role of menthol in treatment of candidial napkin dermatitis. World J. Pediatr. WJP. 2011;7(2):167–170.
  5. Eccles R. and Jones S. The effect of menthol on nasal resistance to air flow. J. Laryngol. Otol. 1983;97(8):705–709.
  6. Eccles R, et al. The effects of menthol isomers on nasal sensation of airflow. Clin. Otolaryngol. Allied Sci. 1988;13(1):25–29.
  7. Eccles R, et al. The effects of oral administration of (-)-menthol on nasal resistance to airflow and nasal sensation of airflow in subjects suffering from nasal congestion associated with the common cold. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 1990;42(9):652–654.
  8. Raut J, et al. Terpenoids of plant origin inhibit morphogenesis, adhesion, and biofilm formation by Candida albicans. Biofouling. 2013;29(1): 87–96.
  9. Schelz Z, et al. Antimicrobial and antiplasmid activities of essential oils. Fitoterapia. 2006;77(4):279–285.
  10. Ashoor A, et al. Menthol inhibits 5-HT3 receptor-mediated currents. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 2013;347(2):398–409.
  11. Wang Y, et al. Menthol inhibits the proliferation and motility of prostate cancer DU145 cells. Pathol. Oncol. Res. POR. 2012;18(4):903–910.
  12. Russin W, et al. Inhibition of rat mammary carcinogenesis by monoterpenoids. Carcinogenesis. 1989:10(11):2161–2164.
  13. Charles C, et al. Early benefits with daily rinsing on gingival health improvements with an essential oil mouthrinse--post-hoc analysis of 5 clinical trials. J. Dent. Hyg. JDH Am. Dent. Hyg. Assoc. 2014;88(1): 40–50.
  14. Kumar P, et al. Biocontrol potential of essential oil monoterpenes against housefly. Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae),” Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.. 2014;100:1–6.

Thymoquinone Interacts with DNA

  1. Sharpless NE & DePinho RA. Telomeres, stem cells, senescence, and cancer. J Clin Invest. 2004 Jan 15; 113(2): 160–168. doi: 10.1172/JCI200420761.
  2. Maria A. Blasco. Telomeres and human disease: ageing, cancer and beyond. Nature Reviews Genetics 6, 611-622 (August 2005). doi:10.1038/nrg1656.
  3. Salem AA, El Haty IA, Abdou IM et al. Interaction of human telomeric G-quadruplex DNA with thymoquinone: a possible mechanism for thymoquinone anticancer effect. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015 Feb;1850(2):329-42. doi: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2014.10.018. Epub 2014 Oct 24.
  4. Huiqi Li, Karin Engström, Marie Vahter, Karin Broberg. Arsenic Exposure through Drinking Water Is Associated with Longer Telomeres in Peripheral Blood. Chem Res Toxicol. 2012 Nov 19; 25(11): 2333–2339. Published online 2012 Aug 23. doi: 10.1021/tx300222t
  5. Shin JY, Choi YY, Jeon HS, Hwang JH, Kim SA, Kang JH, Chang YS, Jacobs DR Jr, Park JY, Lee DH. Low-dose persistent organic pollutants increased telomere length in peripheral leukocytes of healthy Koreans. Mutagenesis. 2010 Sep;25(5):511-6. doi: 10.1093/mutage/geq035. Epub 2010 Jul 8. 

doTERRA Rosemary and Wild Orange Study

Han et al. (2017). Essential oils diversely modulate genome-wide gene expression in human dermal fibroblasts. Cogent Medicine, 4(1), 1307591. https://doi.org/10.1080/2331205X.2017.1307591
 

doTERRA Juniper Berry Study

  1. Höferl, M., Stoilova, I., Schmidt, E., Wanner, J., Jirovetz, L., Trifonova, D., . . . Krastanov, A. (2014). Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Juniper Berry (Juniperus communis L.) Essential Oil. Action of the Essential Oil on the Antioxidant Protection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Model Organism. Antioxidants, 3(1), 81-98. doi:10.3390/antiox3010081
  2. Han et. al. (2017). Lemongrass ( Cymbopogon flexuosus ) essential oil demonstrated anti-inflammatory effect in pre-inflamed human dermal fibroblasts. Biochimie Open, 4, 107-111. doi:10.1016/j.biopen.2017.03.004
  3. Ward, S. (2012). Faculty of 1000 evaluation for A selective inhibitor reveals PI3Kγ dependence of TH17 cell differentiation. F1000 - Post-publication peer review of the biomedical literature.
  4. Berg, E. L., Yang, J., Melrose, J., Nguyen, D., Privat, S., Rosler, E., . . . Ekins, S. (2010). Chemical target and pathway toxicity mechanisms defined in primary human cell systems. Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods, 61(1), 3-15 

doTERRA Vetiver Study

  1. Han et al. (2017). Biological activity of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides) essential oil in human dermal fibroblasts. Cogent Medicine, 4(1).
  2. Ward, S. (2012). Faculty of 1000 evaluation for A selective inhibitor reveals PI3Kγ dependence of TH17 cell differentiation. F1000 - Post-publication peer review of the biomedical literature.
  3. Berg, E. L., Yang, J., Melrose, J., Nguyen, D., Privat, S., Rosler, E., & Ekins, S. (2010). Chemical target and pathway toxicity mechanisms defined in primary human cell systems. Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods, 61(1), 3-15
  4. Herum, K., Lunde, I., Mcculloch, A., & Christensen, G. (2017). The Soft- and Hard-Heartedness of Cardiac Fibroblasts: Mechanotransduction Signaling Pathways in Fibrosis of the Heart. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 6(6), 53. doi:10.3390/jcm6050053

doTERRA Oregano Oil Study

  1. Han, X., & Parker, T. L. (2017). Biological activity of vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides) essential oil in human dermal fibroblasts. Cogent Medicine, 4(1).
  2. R.B. Bostancıoglu, M. Ku¨rkçu¨oglu, K.H.C. Bas‚er, A.T. Koparal, Assessment of anti-angiogenic and anti-tumoral potentials of Origanum onites L. essential oil, Food Chem. Toxicol. Int. J. Publ. Br. Ind. Biol. Res. Assoc. 50 (2012) 2002e2008, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2012. 03.074.
  3. W.Z. Liang, C.H. Lu, Carvacrol-induced [Ca2þ]i rise and apoptosis in human glioblastoma cells, Life Sci. 90 (2012) 703e711, http:// dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2012.03.027.

Drought and Essential Oil Production in Sage

Radwan A, Kleinwächter M, Selmar D. Impact of drought stress on specialised metabolism: Biosynthesis and the expression of monoterpene synthases in sage (Salvia officinalis). Phytochemistry. 2017. 24;141:20-26. doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2017.05.005.
 

Caterpillars Use Essential Oil Constituents

  1. Burger, B.V., Munro, Z., Roth, M., Spies, H.S.C., Truter, V. and Greetsema, H. 1985. Constituents of osmeterial secretion of prefinal instar larvae of citrus swallowtail, Papilio demodocus (Esper) (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). J. Chem. Ecol. 11 (8): 1093-1114.
  2. Chattopadhyay, J. 2011. The structure and defensive efficacy of glandular secretion of the larval osmeterium in Graphium agamemnon agamemnon Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).
  3. Damman, H. 1986. The osmeterial glands of the swallowtail butterfly Eurytides Marcellus as a defense against natural enemies. Ecol.Entomol. 11: 261-265.
  4. Chow, Y.S. and Tsai, R.S. 1989. Protective chemicals in caterpillar survival. Experientia (Basel) 45 (4): 390-392.
  5. Honda, K. 1981. Larval osmeterial secretions of the swallowtails. J. Chern. Ecol. 7: 1089-1113.
  6. Zakharov EV, Caterino MS, Sperling FA. Molecular phylogeny, historical biogeography, and divergence time estimates for swallowtail butterflies of the genus Papilio (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Syst Biol. 2004 Apr;53(2):193-215.

Santalol

  1. M. Sharma et al., “Suppression of Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated Cytokine/Chemokine Production in Skin Cells by Sandalwood Oils and Purified α-santalol and β-santalol,” Phytother. Res., vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 925–932, Jun. 2014.
  2. B. L. Arasada, A. Bommareddy, X. Zhang, K. Bremmon, and C. Dwivedi, “Effects of alpha-santalol on proapoptotic caspases and p53 expression in UVB irradiated mouse skin,” Anticancer Res., vol. 28, no. 1A, pp. 129–132, Feb. 2008.
  3. T. Ochi, H. Shibata, T. Higuti, K. Kodama, T. Kusumi, and Y. Takaishi, “Anti-Helicobacter pylori compounds from Santalum album,” J. Nat. Prod., vol. 68, no. 6, pp. 819–824, Jun. 2005.
  4. E. Heuberger, T. Hongratanaworakit, and G. Buchbauer, “East Indian Sandalwood and alphasantalol odor increase physiological and self-rated arousal in humans,” Planta Med., vol. 72, no. 9, pp. 792–800, Jul. 2006.

Chemistry of Douglas Fir Essential Oil

  1. Guzmán-Gutiérrez, S. L., Bonilla-Jaime, H., Gómez-Cansino, R. & Reyes-Chilpa, R. Linalool and β-pinene exert their antidepressant-like activity through the monoaminergic pathway. Life Sci. 128, 24–29 (2015).
  2. Bae, G.-S. et al. Protective effects of alpha-pinene in mice with cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. Life Sci. 91, 866–871 (2012).
  3. Kim, D.-S. et al. Alpha-Pinene Exhibits Anti-Inflammatory Activity Through the Suppression of MAPKs and the NF-κB Pathway in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages. Am. J. Chin. Med. 43, 731–742 (2015).
  4. Nam, S.-Y. et al. The therapeutic efficacy of α-pinene in an experimental mouse model of allergic rhinitis. Int. Immunopharmacol. 23, 273–282 (2014).
  5. Matthys, H. et al. Efficacy and tolerability of myrtol standardized in acute bronchitis. A multi-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group clinical trial vs. cefuroxime and ambroxol. Arzneimittelforschung. 50, 700–711 (2000).
  6. Meister, R., Wittig, T., Beuscher, N. & de Mey, C. Efficacy and tolerability of myrtol standardized in long-term treatment of chronic bronchitis. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Study Group Investigators. Arzneimittelforschung. 49, 351–358 (1999).
  7. Sengespeik, H. C., Zimmermann, T., Peiske, C. & de Mey, C. [Myrtol standardized in the treatment of acute and chronic respiratory infections in children. A multicenter post-marketing surveillance study]. Arzneimittelforschung. 48, 990–994 (1998).
  8. Begrow, F., Böckenholt, C., Ehmen, M., Wittig, T. & Verspohl, E. J. Effect of myrtol standardized and other substances on the respiratory tract: ciliary beat frequency and mucociliary clearance as parameters. Adv. Ther. 29, 350–358 (2012).
  9. Niccolini P, Pasotti V, Caliari W. New Pharmacological properties of detla-3-carene. Antibacterial and expectorant effects. Boll Chim Farm. 1964 Aug;103:598-608.
  10. Borges, A., Lopez-Romero, J. C., Oliveira, D., Giaouris, E. & Simões, M. Prevention, removal and inactivation of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus biofilms using selected monoterpenes of essential oils. J. Appl. Microbiol. (2017). doi:10.1111/jam.13490
  11. Valente, J. et al. Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil. Food Chem. Toxicol. 62, 349–354 (2013).
  12. Quiroga, P. R., Asensio, C. M. & Nepote, V. Antioxidant effects of the monoterpenes carvacrol, thymol and sabinene hydrate on chemical and sensory stability of roasted sunflower seeds. J. Sci. Food Agric. 95, 471–479 (2015).
  13. Ito K, Ito M. The sedative effect of inhaled terpinolene in mice and its structure-activity relationships. J Nat Med. 2013 Oct;67(4):833-7. doi: 10.1007/s11418-012-0732-1. 

doTERRA Lifelong Vitality Pack® Study

Han et al. 2017. Evaluation of the health effects of a multivitamin mineral herbal essential oil-infused supplement: a pilot trial. Journal of Dietary Supplements. doi: 10.1080/19390211.2017.1331943
 

doTERRA Serenity Restful Complex Clinical Trial

  1. von Ruesten A, Weikert C, and Boeing H. Association of sleep deprivation with chronic diseases in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study. PLOS One. 2012. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030972
  2. Al Khatib H, harding S, Darzi J, and Pot G. The effects of partial sleep deprivation on energy balance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2017;71(5):614-624.
  3. Ferrie J, et al. Sleep epidemiology--a rapidly growing field. International Journal of Epidemiology.
  4. Stevens N, Dorsett J, DaBell A, Egget D, Han X, Parker T. Subjective assessment of the effects of an herbal supplement containing lavender essential oil on sleep quality: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Cogent Medicine. 2017. doi.org/10.1080/2331205X.2017.1380871.

Eucalyptol

  1. Worth H, et al. Concomitant therapy with Cineole (Eucalyptole) reduces exacerbations in COPD: a placebo-controlled double-blind trial. Respir. Res. 2009;10:69.
  2. Worth H. and Dethlefsen U. Patients with asthma benefit from concomitant therapy with cineole: a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. J. Asthma Off. J. Assoc. Care Asthma. 2012:49(8): 849–853.
  3. Juergens U, et al. Antiinflammatory activity of 1.8-cineol (eucalyptol) in bronchial asthma: a double-blind placebo controlled trial. Respir. Med.2003;97(3):250–256.
  4. Kehrl W, et al. Therapy for acute nonpurulent rhinosinusitis with cineole: results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. The Laryngoscope. 2004;114(4):738–742.
  5. Mimica-Dukić N, et al. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of three Mentha species essential oils. Planta Med. 2003:69(5):413–419.
  6. Yu D, et al. Antifungal modes of action of tea tree oil and its two characteristic components against Botrytis cinerea. J. Appl. Microbiol. 2015:119(5):1253–1262.
  7. Kumar P, et al. Biocontrol potential of essential oil monoterpenes against housefly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae). Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 2014:100:1–6.
  8. Toloza A, et al. Fumigant and repellent properties of essential oils and component compounds against permethrin-resistant Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae) from Argentina. J. Med. Entomol. 2006:43(5):889–895.

doTERRA Anchor Chemistry

  1. S. Dayawansa, K. Umeno, H. Takakura, E. Hori, E. Tabuchi, Y. Nagashima, H. Oosu, Y. Yada, T. Suzuki, T. Ono, and H. Nishijo, “Autonomic responses during inhalation of natural fragrance of ‘Cedrol’ in humans,” Auton. Neurosci., vol. 108, no. 1–2, pp. 79–86, Oct. 2003.
  2. Y. Yada, H. Sadachi, Y. Nagashima, and T. Suzuki, “Overseas survey of the effect of cedrol on the 
autonomic nervous system in three countries,” J. Physiol. Anthropol., vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 349–354, 
2007. 

  3. Milanos S, Elsharif SA, Janzen D et al. Metabolic Products of Linalool and Modulation of GABAA receptors. Front Chem. 2017 Jun 21;5:46. doi: 10.3389/fchem.2017.00046. eCollection 2017.
  4. D. Nord and J. Belew, “Effectiveness of the essential oils lavender and ginger in promoting children’s comfort in a perianesthesia setting,” J. Perianesthesia Nurs. Off. J. Am. Soc. PeriAnesthesia Nurses Am. Soc. PeriAnesthesia Nurses, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 307–312, Oct. 2009. 

  5. R. McCaffrey, D. J. Thomas, and A. O. Kinzelman, “The effects of lavender and rosemary essential oils on test-taking anxiety among graduate nursing students,” Holist. Nurs. Pract., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 88–93, Apr. 2009.
  6. Zhu R, Liu H, Liu C et al. Cinnamaldehyde in diabetes: A review of pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and safety. Pharmacol Res. 2017 Aug;122:78-89. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2017.05.019.

doTERRA Align Chemistry

  1. Soto-Vásquez MR, Alvarado-García PA. Aromatherapy with two essential oils from Satureja genre and mindfulness meditation to reduce anxiety in humans. J Tradit Complement Med. 2016;7(1):121-125.
  2. D. P. de Sousa, P. de Almeida Soares Hocayen, L. N. Andrade, and R. Andreatini, “A Systematic Review of the Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Essential Oils in Animal Models,” Mol. Basel Switz., vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 18620–18660, 2015.
  3. L. Rombolà, M. T. Corasaniti, D. Rotiroti, C. Tassorelli, S. Sakurada, G. Bagetta, and L. A. Morrone, “Effects of systemic administration of the essential oil of bergamot (BEO) on gross behaviour and EEG power spectra recorded from the rat hippocampus and cerebral cortex,” Funct. Neurol., vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 107–112, Jun. 2009.
  4. D. Amantea, V. Fratto, S. Maida, D. Rotiroti, S. Ragusa, G. Nappi, G. Bagetta, and M. T. Corasaniti, “Chapter 27 Prevention of Glutamate Accumulation and Upregulation of Phospho‐Akt may Account for Neuroprotection Afforded by Bergamot Essential Oil against Brain Injury Induced by Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rat,” in International Review of Neurobiology, vol. 85, Elsevier, 2009, pp. 389–405.
  5. T. Sakurada, H. Mizoguchi, H. Kuwahata, S. Katsuyama, T. Komatsu, L. A. Morrone, M. T. Corasaniti, G. Bagetta, and S. Sakurada, “Intraplantar injection of bergamot essential oil induces peripheral antinociception mediated by opioid mechanism,” Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., vol. 97, no. 3, pp. 436–443, Jan. 2011.
  6. M. T. Corasaniti, J. Maiuolo, S. Maida, V. Fratto, M. Navarra, R. Russo, D. Amantea, L. A. Morrone, and G. Bagetta, “Cell signaling pathways in the mechanisms of neuroprotection afforded by bergamot essential oil against NMDA-induced cell death in vitro,” Br. J. Pharmacol., vol. 151, no. 4, pp. 518–529, Jun. 2007.
  7. H. Kuwahata, T. Komatsu, S. Katsuyama, M. T. Corasaniti, G. Bagetta, S. Sakurada, T. Sakurada, and K. Takahama, “Peripherally injected linalool and bergamot essential oil attenuate mechanical allodynia via inhibiting spinal ERK phosphorylation,” Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., vol. 103, no. 4, pp. 735–741, Feb. 2013.
  8. R. Tundis, M. R. Loizzo, M. Bonesi, F. Menichini, V. Mastellone, C. Colica, and F. Menichini, “Comparative study on the antioxidant capacity and cholinesterase inhibitory activity of Citrus aurantifolia Swingle, C. aurantium L., and C. bergamia Risso and Poit. peel essential oils,” J. Food Sci., vol. 77, no. 1, pp. H40-46, Jan. 2012.
  9. S. Darvesh, D. A. Hopkins, and C. Geula, “Neurobiology of butyrylcholinesterase,” Nat. Rev. Neurosci., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 131–138, Feb. 2003.
  10. L. A. Morrone, L. Rombolà, C. Pelle, M. T. Corasaniti, S. Zappettini, P. Paudice, G. Bonanno, and G. Bagetta, “The essential oil of bergamot enhances the levels of amino acid neurotransmitters in the hippocampus of rat: Implication of monoterpene hydrocarbons,” Pharmacol. Res., vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 255–262, Apr. 2007.
  11. K.-M. Chang and C.-W. Shen, “Aromatherapy benefits autonomic nervous system regulation for elementary school faculty in taiwan,” Evid.-Based Complement. Altern. Med. ECAM, vol. 2011, p. 946537, 2011.
  12. C.-H. Ni, W.-H. Hou, C.-C. Kao, M.-L. Chang, L.-F. Yu, C.-C. Wu, and C. Chen, “The Anxiolytic Effect of Aromatherapy on Patients Awaiting Ambulatory Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med., vol. 2013, pp. 1–5, 2013.
  13. E. Watanabe, K. Kuchta, H. Rauwald, T. Kamei, and J. Imanishi, “Mood enhancement by bergamot (Citrus bergamia (Risso) Wright &amp; Arn.) volatile oil vapor with regards to personality and lifestyle related changes in salivary cortisol levels: A randomized cross-over trial,” Planta Med., vol. 79, no. 13, Aug. 2013.
  14. K. Lemon, “An assessment of treating depression and anxiety with aromatherapy,” Int. J. Aromather., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 63–69, 2004.
  15. S.-H. Liu, T.-H. Lin, and K.-M. Chang, “The Physical Effects of Aromatherapy in Alleviating Work-Related Stress on Elementary School Teachers in Taiwan,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med., vol. 2013, pp. 1–7, 2013.
  16. E. Watanabe, K. Kuchta, M. Kimura, H. W. Rauwald, T. Kamei, and J. Imanishi, “Effects of bergamot (Citrus bergamia (Risso) Wright & Arn.) essential oil aromatherapy on mood states,
  17. Muhammad Nadeem, Faqir Muhammad Anjum, Muhammad Issa Khan, Saima Tehseen, Ahmed El ‐ Ghorab, and Javed Iqbal Sultan, “Nutritional and medicinal aspects of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.),” Br. Food J., vol. 115, no. 5, pp. 743–755, May 2013. 

  18. “Plant Care Guides :: National Gardening Association.” [Online]. Available: http://www.garden.org/plantguide/?q=show&id=3362. [Accessed: 17-Jul-2015]. 

  19. O. Cioanca, L. Hritcu, M. Mihasan, A. Trifan, and M. Hancianu, “Inhalation of coriander volatile oil increased anxiolytic-antidepressant-like behaviors and decreased oxidative status in beta-amyloid (1-42) rat model of Alzheimer’s disease,” Physiol. Behav., vol. 131, pp. 68–74, May 2014.
  20. I.-H. Kim, C. Kim, K. Seong, M.-H. Hur, H. M. Lim, and M. S. Lee, “Essential Oil Inhalation on Blood 
Pressure and Salivary Cortisol Levels in Prehypertensive and Hypertensive Subjects,” Evid.-Based 
Complement. Altern. Med. ECAM, vol. 2012, 2012. 

  21. M.-C. Ou, Y.-F. Lee, C.-C. Li, and S.-K. Wu, “The effectiveness of essential oils for patients with neck 
pain: a randomized controlled study,” J. Altern. Complement. Med. N. Y. N, vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 771– 
779, Oct. 2014. 

  22. T. Umezu, “Evaluation of the Effects of Plant-derived Essential Oils on Central Nervous System Function Using Discrete Shuttle-type Conditioned Avoidance Response in Mice: ESSENTIAL OILS AND AVOIDANCE RESPONSE,” Phytother. Res., vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 884–891, Jun. 2012.
  23. K. Kuroda, N. Inoue, Y. Ito, K. Kubota, A. Sugimoto, T. Kakuda, and T. Fushiki, “Sedative effects of the jasmine tea odor and (R)-(-)-linalool, one of its major odor components, on autonomic nerve activity and mood states,” Eur. J. Appl. Physiol., vol. 95, no. 2–3, pp. 107–114, Oct. 2005.

doTERRA Arise Chemistry

 

  1. Goepfert M, Liebl P, Herth N et al. Aroma oil therapy in palliative care: a pilot study with physiological parameters in conscious as well as unconscious patients. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. (2017) Jun 20. doi: 10.1007/s00432-017-2460-0
  2. Heuberger E, Hongratanaworakit T, Böhm C, Weber R, Buchbauer G. Effects of chiral fragrances on human autonomic nervous system parameters and self-evaluation. Chem Senses. 2001 Mar;26(3):281-92.
  3. Yang H, Woo J, Pae AN et al. α-Pinene, a Major Constituent of Pine Tree Oils, Enhances Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep in Mice through GABAA-benzodiazepine Receptors. Mol Pharmacol. 2016 Nov;90(5):530-539. Epub 2016 Aug 29.
  4. Matsubara E, Fukagawa M, Okamoto T et al. (-)-Bornyl acetate induces autonomic relaxation and reduces arousal level after visual display terminal work without any influences of task performance in low-dose condition. Biomed Res. 2011 Apr;32(2):151-7
  5. Matsubara E, Fukagawa M, Okamoto T et al. The essential oil of Abies sibirica (Pinaceae) reduces arousal levels after visual display terminal work. Flavour Frag J. 2011;26(3):204-210.
  6. Guzmán-Gutiérrez SL, Bonilla-Jaime H, Gómez-Cansino R et al. Linalool and β-pinene exert their antidepressant-like activity through the monoaminergic pathway. Life Sci. 2015 May 1;128:24-9. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2015.02.021.

Chemistry of Siberian Fir Oil

  1. Boyd EM, Sheppard EP. Nutmeg Oil and Camphene as Inhaled Expectorants. Arch Otolaryngol. 1970;92(4):372-378. doi:10.1001/archotol.1970.04310040060011
  2. Kim SH, Lee SY, Hong CY et al. Whitening and antioxidant activities of bornyl acetate and nezukol fractionated from Cryptomeria japonica essential oil. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2013 Oct;35(5):484-90. doi: 10.1111/ics.12069. Epub 2013 Jul 6.
  3. Yang H, Woo J, Pae AN et al. α-Pinene, a Major Constituent of Pine Tree Oils, Enhances Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep in Mice through GABAA-benzodiazepine Receptors. Mol Pharmacol. 2016 Nov;90(5):530-539. Epub 2016 Aug 29. 

Blue Tansy Essential Oil

 

  1. Srivastava JK, Pandey M, Gupta S. Chamomile, a novel and selective COX-2 inhibitor with anti-inflammatory activity. Life Sci. 2009 Nov 4; 85(19-20): 663–669.
  2. L. Ornano et al., “Chemopreventive and Antioxidant Activity of the Chamazulene-Rich Essential Oil Obtained from Artemisia arborescens L. Growing on the Isle of La Maddalena, Sardinia, Italy,” Chem. Biodivers., vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 1464–1474, Aug. 2013.
  3. J. Valente et al., “Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil,” Food Chem. Toxicol., vol. 62, pp. 349–354, Dec. 2013.
  4. Rao VS, Menezes AM, Viana GS. Effect of myrcene on nociception in mice. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1990 Dec;42(12):877-8.
  5. Hwang E, Ngo HTT, Park B, Seo SA, Yang JE, Yi TH. Myrcene, an Aromatic Volatile Compound, Ameliorates Human Skin Extrinsic Aging via Regulation of MMPs Production. Am J Chin Med. 2017;45(5):1113-1124. doi: 10.1142/S0192415X17500604. Epub 2017 Jun 28. 

Endocannabinoids Explained

 

  1. Leweke FM, Piomelli C, Pahlisch F, et al. Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. Translational Psychiatry (2012) 2, e94; doi:10.1038/tp.2012.15
  2. Pertwee RG. The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin. Br J Pharmacol. 2008 Jan; 153(2): 199–215.
  3. A. Chicca et al., “Functionalization of β-caryophyllene generates novel polypharmacology in the endocannabinoid system,” ACS Chem. Biol., vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 1499–1507, Jul. 2014. 

Copaiba Essential Oil

 

  1. A. G. da Silva et al., “Application of the essential oil from copaiba (Copaifera langsdori Desf.) for acne vulgaris: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial,” Altern. Med. Rev. J. Clin. Ther., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 69–75, Mar. 2012.
  2. S. S. Dahham et al., “The Anticancer, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of the Sesquiterpene β-Caryophyllene from the Essential Oil of Aquilaria crassna,” Mol. Basel Switz., vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 11808–11829, 2015.
  3. B. Bayala et al., “Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 3, p. e92122, Mar. 2014.
  4. M. A. Abbas, M. O. Taha, M. A. Zihlif, and A. M. Disi, “β-Caryophyllene causes regression of endometrial implants in a rat model of endometriosis without affecting fertility,” Eur. J. Pharmacol., vol. 702, no. 1–3, pp. 12–19, Feb. 2013.
  5. M. I. Campos, W. Vieira, C. Campos, F. Aarestrup, and B. Aarestrup, “Atorvastatin and trans caryophyllene for the prevention of leukopenia in an experimental chemotherapy model in Wistar rats,” Mol. Clin. Oncol., Apr. 2015.
  6. D. Dias et al., “Copaiba Oil Suppresses Inflammatory Cytokines in Splenocytes of C57Bl/6 Mice Induced with Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE),” Molecules, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 12814–12826, Aug. 2014.
  7. C. Vilanovabr, S. Ribeirobr, R. Machadobr, S. Vieirabr, S. debrLimabr, and P. Martins, “Evaluation of oil-resin activity of Copaifera sp. on gastric emptying in Rattus&amp;lt;br&amp;gt;novergicus,” Emir. J. Food Agric., vol. 23, no. 1, p. 394, 2013.
  8. Y.-T. Tung, M.-T. Chua, S.-Y. Wang, and S.-T. Chang, “Anti-inflammation activities of essential oil and its constituents from indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum) twigs,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 99, no. 9, pp. 3908–3913, Jun. 2008.
  9. M. J. Chavan, P. S. Wakte, and D. B. Shinde, “Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Caryophyllene oxide from Annona squamosa L. bark,” Phytomedicine Int. J. Phytother. Phytopharm., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 149–151, Feb. 2010.
  10. C. Ghelardini, N. Galeotti, L. Di Cesare Mannelli, G. Mazzanti, and A. Bartolini, “Local anaesthetic activity of beta-caryophyllene,” Farm. Soc. Chim. Ital. 1989, vol. 56, no. 5–7, pp. 387–389, Jul. 2001.
  11. J. Y. Cho, H.-J. Chang, S.-K. Lee, H.-J. Kim, J.-K. Hwang, and H. S. Chun, “Amelioration of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice by oral administration of beta-caryophyllene, a sesquiterpene,” Life Sci., vol. 80, no. 10, pp. 932–939, Feb. 2007.
  12. F. A. Pieri, M. C. M. Mussi, J. E. Fiorini, M. A. S. Moreira, and J. M. Schneedorf, “Bacteriostatic effect of copaiba oil (Copaifera officinalis) against Streptococcus mutans,” Braz. Dent. J., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 36–38, 2012.
  13. A. O. Santos, T. Ueda-Nakamura, B. P. Dias Filho, V. F. Veiga Junior, A. C. Pinto, and C. V. Nakamura, “Effect of Brazilian copaiba oils on Leishmania amazonensis,” J. Ethnopharmacol., vol. 120, no. 2, pp. 204–208, Nov. 2008.
  14. E. S. Otaguiri et al., “Antibacterial combination of oleoresin from Copaifera multijuga Hayne and biogenic silver nanoparticles towards Streptococcus agalactiae,” Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol., Dec. 2016.
  15. C. A. C. G. Simões, N. C. de O. Conde, G. N. Venâncio, P. S. L. L. Milério, M. F. C. L. Bandeira, and V. F. da Veiga Júnior, “Antibacterial Activity of Copaiba Oil Gel on Dental Biofilm,” Open Dent. J., vol. 10, pp. 188–195, May 2016.
  16. L. a. F. Paiva et al., “Protective effect of Copaifera langsdorffii oleo-resin against acetic acid-induced colitis in rats,” J. Ethnopharmacol., vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 51–56, Jul. 2004.
  17. A. Guimarães-Santos et al., “Copaiba Oil-Resin Treatment Is Neuroprotective and Reduces Neutrophil Recruitment and Microglia Activation after Motor Cortex Excitotoxic Injury,” Evid.-Based Complement. Altern. Med. ECAM, vol. 2012, 2012.
  18. C. Kobayashi et al., “Pharmacological evaluation of Copaifera multijuga oil in rats,” Pharm. Biol., vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 306–313, Mar. 2011.
  19. M. Curio, H. Jacone, J. Perrut, A. C. Pinto, V. F. V. Filho, and R. C. B. Silva, “Acute effect of Copaifera reticulata Ducke copaiba oil in rats tested in the elevated plus-maze: an ethological analysis,” J. Pharm. Pharmacol., vol. 61, no. 8, pp. 1105–1110, Aug. 2009.
  20. N. de M. Gomes, C. M. de Rezende, S. P. Fontes, M. E. Matheus, A. da C. Pinto, and P. D. Fernandes, “Characterization of the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of fractions obtained from Copaifera multijuga Hayne,” J. Ethnopharmacol., vol. 128, no. 1, pp. 177–183, Mar. 2010.
  21. N. M. Gomes, C. M. Rezende, S. P. Fontes, M. E. Matheus, and P. D. Fernandes, “Antinociceptive activity of Amazonian Copaiba oils,” J. Ethnopharmacol., vol. 109, no. 3, pp. 486–492, Feb. 2007.
  22. V. F. Veiga Junior, E. C. Rosas, M. V. Carvalho, M. G. M. O. Henriques, and A. C. Pinto, “Chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activity of copaiba oils from Copaifera cearensis Huber ex Ducke, Copaifera reticulata Ducke and Copaifera multijuga Hayne--a comparative study,” J. Ethnopharmacol., vol. 112, no. 2, pp. 248–254, Jun. 2007.
  23. M. F. C. L. Bandeira et al., “Dentin Cleaning Ability of an Amazon Bioactive: Evaluation by Scanning Electron Microscopy,” Open Dent. J., vol. 10, pp. 182–187, May 2016.
  24. M. A. Dias-da-Silva, A. C. Pereira, M. C. Marin, and M. A. Salgado, “The influence of topic and systemic administration of copaiba oil on the alveolar wound healing after tooth extraction in rats,” J. Clin. Exp. Dent., vol. 5, no. 4, pp. e169–e173, Oct. 2013.
  25. P. L. Tobouti et al., “Influence of melaleuca and copaiba oils on Candida albicans adhesion,” Gerodontology, p. n/a-n/a, Nov. 2014.
  26. J. Nogueira Neto et al., “Changes in the volume and histology of endometriosis foci in rats treated with copaiba oil (Copaiferalangsdorffii),” Acta Cir. Bras., vol. 26, pp. 20–24, 2011.
  27. A. O. dos Santos et al., “Leishmania amazonensis: Effects of oral treatment with copaiba oil in mice,” Exp. Parasitol., vol. 129, no. 2, pp. 145–151, Oct. 2011.
  28. A. O. dos Santos, T. Ueda-Nakamura, B. P. Dias Filho, V. F. da Veiga Junior, and C. V. Nakamura, “Copaiba Oil: An Alternative to Development of New Drugs against Leishmaniasis,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med., vol. 2012, pp. 1–7, 2012.
  29. L. R. M. Estevão, J. P. de Medeiros, L. Baratella-Evêncio, R. S. Simões, F. de S. Mendonça, and J. Evêncio-Neto, “Effects of the topical administration of copaiba oil ointment (Copaifera langsdorffii) in skin flaps viability of rats,” Acta Cir. Bras., vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 863–869, 2013.
  30. L. Garcia et al., “Biocompatibility assessment of pastes containing Copaiba oilresin, propolis, and calcium hydroxide in the subcutaneous tissue of rats,” J. Conserv. Dent. JCD, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 108–112, 2011.
  31. A. G. Guimarães et al., “Bioassay-guided evaluation of antioxidant and antinociceptive activities of carvacrol,” Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol., vol. 107, no. 6, pp. 949–957, Dec. 2010.
  32. L. G. Lucca et al., “Determination of β-caryophyllene skin permeation/retention from crude copaiba oil (Copaifera multijuga Hayne) and respective oil-based nanoemulsion using a novel HS-GC/MS method,” J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., vol. 104, pp. 144–148, Feb. 2015.
  33. G. Svetlichny et al., “Solid lipid nanoparticles containing copaiba oil and allantoin: development and role of nanoencapsulation on the antifungal activity,” Pharm., vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 155–164, Mar. 2015. 

Beta-Caryophyllene



  1. Mackie K. Understanding cannabinoid psychoactivity with mouse genetic models. PLOS Biology. 2007. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0050280
  2. Basu S. and Dittel B. Unraveling the complexities of the cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) immune regulation in health and disease. Immunologic Research. 2015;51(1):26-38.
  3. Toguri j, et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of cannabinoid CB2 receptor activation in endotoxin-induced uveitis. British Journal of Pharmacology. 2014;171(6):1448-1461.
  4. Dhopeshwarker A. and Mackie K. CB2 cannabinoid receptors as a therapeutic agent – what does the future hold? Molecular Pharmacology.2014;86(4):430-437.
  5. Fidyt K, et al. β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties. Cancer Medicine.2016;5(10):3007-3017. 

doTERRA Cardamom Study



Han et al. 2017. Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) essential oil significantly inhibits vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and impacts genome-wide gene expression in human dermal fibroblasts. Cogent Medicine, 4(1), 1308066. https://doi.org/10.1080/2331205X.2017.1308066
 

doTERRA Melaleuca Study



Melaleuca (Melaleuca alternifolia) essential oil demonstrates tissue-remodeling and metabolism-modulating activities in human skin cells, Xuesheng Han & Tory L. Parker, Cogent Biology (2017), 3: 1318476.
  

doTERRA Arborvitae Study



Han, X., & Parker, T. L. (2017). Arborvitae (Thuja plicata) essential oil significantly inhibited critical inflammation- and tissue remodeling-related proteins and genes in human dermal fibroblasts. Biochimie Open, 4, 56–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopen.2017.02.003  

Alpha-Pinene

  1. Rivas da Silva A, et al. Biological activities of α-Pinene and β-Pinene enantiomers. Mol. Basel Switz. 2012; 17(6): 6305–6316.
  2. Cavaleiro C, Salgueiro L, Gonçalves M, Hrimpeng K, Pinto J, Pinto E. Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Angelica major against Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species. J. Nat. Med. 2015;69(2):241–248.
  3. Kim D, et al. Alpha-Pinene Exhibits AntiInflammatory Activity through the Suppression of MAPKs and the NF-κB Pathway in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages. Am. J. Chin. Med. 2015; 43(4):731–742.
  4. Li X, et al. α-Pinene, linalool, and 1-octanol contribute to the topical anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of frankincense by inhibiting COX-2. J. Ethnopharmacol. Dec. 2015.
  5. Zhou J, Tang F, Mao G, Bian R. Effect of alpha-Pinene on nuclear translocation of NF-kappa B in THP-1 cells. Acta Pharmacol. Sin. 2004;25(4):480–484.
  6. Kusuhara M, et al. Fragrant environment with α-Pinene decreases tumor growth in mice. Biomed. Res. Tokyo Jpn. 2012;33(1):57–61.
  7. Kim D, et al. Alpha-Pinene Exhibits Anti-Inflammatory Activity Through the Suppression of MAPKs and the NF-κB Pathway in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages. Am. J. Chin. Med. 2015;43(4): 731–742.
  8. Zhou J, Tang F, Mao G, Bian R. Effect of alpha-Pinene on nuclear translocation of NF-kappa B in THP-1 cells. Acta Pharmacol. Sin.2004;25(4):480–484.
  9. Matthys H, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of myrtol standardized in acute bronchitis. A multi-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group clinical trial vs. cefuroxime and ambroxol. Arzneimittelforschung. 2000;50(8):pp. 700–711.
  10. Begrow F, et al. Effect of myrtol standardized and other substances on the respiratory tract: ciliary beat frequency and mucociliary clearance as parameters. Adv. Ther. 2012;29(4):350–358.
  11. Behrbohm H, Kaschke O, Sydow K. Effect of the phytogenic secretolytic drug Gelomyrtol forte on mucociliary clearance of the maxillary sinus. Laryngorhinootologie. 1995;74(12): 733–737.

doTERRA Frankincense Study
Han, X., Rodriguez, D., & Parker, T. L. (2017). Biological activities of frankincense essential oil in human dermal fibroblasts. Biochimie Open, 4, 31-35. doi:10.1016/j.biopen.2017.01.003

doTERRA Deep Blue® Study

  1. Han, X., & Parker, T. L. (2017). Essential oils diversely modulate genome-wide gene expression in human dermal fibroblasts. Cogent Medicine. 4(1). doi:10.1080/2331205x.2017.1307591
  2. Ward, S. (2012). Faculty of 1000 evaluation for A selective inhibitor reveals PI3Kγ dependence of TH17 cell differentiation. F1000 - Post-publication peer review of the biomedical literature.
  3. Berg, E. L., Yang, J., Melrose, J., Nguyen, D., Privat, S., Rosler, E., . . . Ekins, S. (2010). Chemical target and pathway toxicity mechanisms defined in primary human cell systems. Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods. 61(1), 3-15.

doTERRA Lemongrass Study

  1. Han et. al. (2017). Lemongrass ( Cymbopogon flexuosus ) essential oil demonstrated anti-inflammatory effect in pre-inflamed human dermal fibroblasts. Biochimie Open. 4, 107-111. doi:10.1016/j.biopen.2017.03.004
  2. Ward, S. (2012). Faculty of 1000 evaluation for A selective inhibitor reveals PI3Kγ dependence of TH17 cell differentiation. F1000 - Post-publication peer review of the biomedical literature.
  3. Berg, E. L., Yang, J., Melrose, J., Nguyen, D., Privat, S., Rosler, E., . . . Ekins, S. (2010). Chemical target and pathway toxicity mechanisms defined in primary human cell systems. Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods. 61(1), 3-15. 

Dilution with Essential Oil Nanoparticles

Trinetta V, Morgan MT, Coupland JN, et al. Essential Oils Against Pathogen and Spoilage Microorganisms of Fruit Juices: Use of Versatile Antimicrobial Delivery Systems. J Food Sci. 2017;82(2):471-476.
 

Aromatherapy and Meditation Combined to Reduce Stress

Soto-Vásquez MR, Alvarado-García PA. Aromatherapy with two essential oils from Satureja genre and mindfulness meditation to reduce anxiety in humans. J Tradit Complement Med. 2016;7(1):121-125.
 

Kumquat

  1. Choi H. Characteristic odor components of kumquat peel oil. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2005;53(5):1642-1647.
  2. Nouri A and Shafaghatlonbar A. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of essential oil and organic extract from the peel and kernel parts of Citrus japonica Thunb. (kumquat) from Iran. Natural Products Research. 2016;30(9):1093-1097.
  3. Russo E. Taming THC: Potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects. British Journal of Pharmacology.2010;163:1344-1364.
  4. Yang E, et al. Inhibitory effects of Fortunella japonica var. margarita and Citrus sunki essential oils on nitric oxide production and skin pathogens. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung. 2010;57(1):15-27.
  5. Wang, et al. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of kumquat peel. International Journal of Molecular Science. 2012;13:3382-3393.
  6. Zhou J, Tang F, Mao G, Bian R. Effect of alpha-pinene on nuclear translocation of NF-kappa B in THP-1 cells. Acta Pharmacol. Sin.2004;25(4):480–484. 

Red Mandarin

  1. Bourgou S, et al. Changes of peel essential oil composition of four Tunisian citrus during fruit maturation. Scientific World Journal. 2012. doi: 10.1100/2012/528593.
  2. Barchiesi F, et al. In vitro susceptibility of dermatophytes to conventional and alternative antifungal agents. Med. Mycol. 2009;47(3):321–326.

 Sunny Citrus

  1. M.r S, et al. The comparison of the efficacy of citrus fragrance and fluoxetine in the treatment of major depressive disorder. 2004:10(3):43–48.
  2. Han X, Gibson J, Eggett D, and Parker T. Bergamot (Citrus bergamia) essential oil inhalation improves positive feelings in the waiting room of a mental health treatment center: a pilot study. Phytotherapy Research. 2017. DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5806.
  3. Moss M, et al. Modulation of cognitive performance and mood by aromas of peppermint and ylang-ylang. Int. J. Neurosci. 2008;118(1):59–77.
  4. Goel N. and Lao R. Sleep changes vary by odor perception in young adults. Biol. Psychol., 2006;71(3):341–349.
  5. Umezu T. Evaluation of the effects of plant-derived essential oils on central nervous system function using discrete shuttle-type conditioned avoidance response in mice. Phytother. Res. PTR. 2012; 26(6):884–891.
  6. O’Bryan C, et al. Orange Essential Oils Antimicrobial Activities against Salmonella spp. J. Food Sci. 2008:73(6):M264–M267.
  7. Muthaiyan A, et al. Application of orange essential oil as an antistaphylococcal agent in a dressing model. BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 2012;12(1):1.
  8. Samber N, et al. Synergistic anti-candidal activity and mode of action of Mentha piperita essential oil and its major components. Pharm. Biol.2015;53(10);1496-1504.
  9. Schelz Z, et al. Antimicrobial and antiplasmid activities of essential oils. Fitoterapia. 2006;77(4): 279–285.
  10. Saharkhiz M, et al. Chemical Composition, Antifungal and Antibiofilm Activities of the Essential Oil of Mentha piperita L. ISRN Pharm. 2012; vol. 2012:p. 718645.

Terpinen-4-ol

  1. Hart P, et al. Terpinen-4-ol, the main component of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil), suppresses inflammatory mediator production by activated human monocytes. Inflamm. Res. Off. J. Eur. Histamine Res. Soc. 2000;49(11):619–626.
  2. Nogueira M, Aquino S, Rossa C, Spolidorio D. Terpinen-4-ol and alphaterpineol (tea tree oil components) inhibit the production of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 on human Macrophages. Inflamm. Res. Off. J. Eur. Histamine Res. Soc. 2014;63(9):769–778.
  3. Ninomiya K, et al. Suppression of inflammatory reactions by terpinen-4-ol, a main constituent of tea tree oil, in a murine model of oral candidiasis and its suppressive activity to cytokine production of macrophages in vitro. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2013;36(5):838–844.
  4. Loughlin R, Gilmore B, McCarron P, Tunney M. Comparison of the cidal activity of tea tree oil and terpinen-4-ol against clinical bacterial skin isolates and human fibroblast cells. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 2008;46(4):428–433.
  5. Z. Khalil Z, et al. Regulation of wheal and flare by tea tree oil: complementary human and rodent studies. J. Invest. Dermatol. 2004;123(4):683–690.
  6. Raman A, Weir U, Bloomfield S. Antimicrobial effects of tea-tree oil and its major components on Staphylococcus aureus, Staph. epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 1995;21(4):242–245.
  7. Bozzuto G, Colone M, Toccacieli L, Stringaro A, Molinari A. Tea tree oil might combat Melanoma. Planta Med. 2011;77(1):54–56.
  8. Greay S, et al. Induction of necrosis and cell cycle arrest in murine cancer cell lines by Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil and terpinen-4-ol. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.2010;65(5):877–888.
  9. Wu C, et al. Terpinen-4-ol Induces Apoptosis in Human Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer In Vitro and In Vivo. Evid.-Based Complement. Altern. Med. ECAM. 2012:818261.
  10. Ninomiya K, et al. Suppression of inflammatory reactions by terpinen-4-ol, a main constituent of tea tree oil, in a murine model of oral candidiasis and its suppressive activity to cytokine production of macrophages in vitro. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2013;36(5):838–844.
  11. Taga I, Lan C, Altosaar I. Plant essential oils and mastitis disease: their potential inhibitory effects on pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to bacteria related inflammation. Nat. Prod. Commun. 2012;7(5):675–682.
  12. Ramage G, et al.. Antifungal, cytotoxic, and immunomodulatory properties of tea tree oil and its derivative components: potential role in management of oral candidosis in cancer patients. Front. Microbiol. 2012; 3:220.
  13. Ninomiya K, et al. The essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil) and its main component, terpinen-4-ol protect mice from experimental oral candidiasis. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2012; 35(6):861–865.

Citronellol

  1. Gonzalez-Audino P, et al. Comparative toxicity of oxygenated monoterpenoids in experimental hydroalcoholic lotions to permethrin resistant adult head lice. Arch. Dermatol. Res. 2011;303(5):361–366.
  2. de O. Pereira F, et al. Antifungal activity of geraniol and citronellol, two monoterpenes alcohols, against Trichophyton rubrum involves inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis. Pharm. Biol. 2015; 53(2): 228–234.
  3. Cronin H, Draelos Z. Top 10 botanical ingredients in 2010 anti-aging creams. J. Cosmet. Dermatol.2010;9(3):218–225.
  4. Nerio L, Olivero-Verbel J, Stashenko E. Repellent activity of essential oils: a review. Bioresour. Technol.2010; 101(1):372–378.
  5. Zhuang S, et al. Effect of citronellol and the Chinese medical herb complex on cellular immunity of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy/radiotherapy. Phytother. Res. PTR. 2009;23(6): 785–790.
  6. Maggi F, et al. Chemical composition and in vitro biological activities of the essential oil of Vepris macrophylla (BAKER) I.VERD. endemic to Madagascar. Chem. Biodivers. 2013;10(3):356–366.
  7. Guerrini A, et al. Chemical characterization (GC/MS and NMR Fingerprinting) and bioactivities of South-African Pelargonium capitatum (L.) L’ Her. (Geraniaceae) essential oil. Chem. Biodivers. 2011;8(4):624–642.

Linalyl Acetate

  1. Igarashi T. Physical and psychologic effects of aromatherapy inhalation on pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2013;19(10):805-810.
  2. Peana A, et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of linalool and linalyl acetate constituents of essential oils. Phytomedicine Int. J. Phytother. Phytopharm. 2002;9(8):721–726.
  3. Barocelli E.Antinociceptive and gastroprotective effects of inhaled and orally administered Lavandula hybrida Reverchon Grosso essential oil. Life Sci. 2004;76(2):213–223.
  4. Tadtong S, et al. Antimicrobial activity of blended essential oil preparation. Nat. Prod. Commun.2012;7(10):1401–1404.

Limonene

  1. Soković M, et al. Antibacterial effects of the essential oils of commonly consumed medicinal herbs using an in vitro model. Mol. Basel Switz. 2010. 15(11):7532–7546.
  2. Di Pasqua R, et al. Membrane toxicity of antimicrobial compounds from essential oils. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2007;55(12):4863–4870.
  3. Yang S, et al. Comparative study of the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of six essential oils and their components. Nat. Prod. Res. 2010;24(2):140–151.
  4. Crowell P, et al. Human metabolism of the experimental cancer therapeutic agent d-limonene. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. 1994;35(1):31–37.
  5. Manassero C, et al. In vitro comparative analysis of antiproliferative activity of essential oil from mandarin peel and its principal component limonene. Nat. Prod. Res. 2013;27(16):1475–1478.
  6. Zhang X, et al. Synergistic inhibitory effect of berberine and d-limonene on human gastric carcinoma cell line MGC803. J. Med. Food. 2014;17(9):955–962.
  7. Inouye S, Takizawa T, and Yamaguchi H. Antibacterial activity of essential oils and their major constituents against respiratory tract pathogens by gaseous contact. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 2001;47(5):565–573.
  8. Kummer R, et al.Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka Essential Oil and Limonene in Experimental Mouse Models. Evid.-Based Complement. Altern. Med. ECAM. 2013: 859083.
  9. d’Alessio P, et al. Skin repair properties of d-Limonene and perillyl alcohol in murine models. Anti-Inflamm. Anti-Allergy Agents Med. Chem. 2014;13(1):29–35.
  10. Tan X, et al. Monoterpenes: Novel insights into their biological effects and roles on glucose uptake and lipid metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Food Chem. 2016;196:242–250.
  11. Ostan R et al. Impact of diet and nutraceutical supplementation on inflammation in elderly people. Results from the RISTOMED study, an open-label randomized control trial. Clin. Nutr. Edinb. Scotl. Jul. 2015.
  12. Jing L, et al. Preventive and ameliorating effects of citrus D-limonene on dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2013;715(1–3): 46–55.
  13. Xie P, et al. Effect of toothpaste containing d-limonene on natural extrinsic smoking stain: a 4-week clinical trial. Am. J. Dent. 2010;23(4):196–200.
  14. Subramenium G, et al. Limonene inhibits streptococcal biofilm formation by targeting surface-associated virulence factors. J. Med. Microbiol. 2015;64(8):879–890.

Linalool

  1. S. Tadtong, S. Suppawat, A. Tintawee, P. Saramas, S. Jareonvong, and T. Hongratanaworakit, “Antimicrobial activity of blended essential oil preparation,” Nat. Prod. Commun., vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 1401–1404, Oct. 2012.
  2. A. Herman, K. Tambor, and A. Herman, “Linalool Affects the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Essential Oils,” Curr. Microbiol., vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 165–172, Feb. 2016.
  3. A. T. Peana, P. S. D’Aquila, F. Panin, G. Serra, P. Pippia, and M. D. L. Moretti, “Anti-inflammatory activity of linalool and linalyl acetate constituents of essential oils,” Phytomedicine Int. J. Phytother. Phytopharm., vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 721–726, Dec. 2002.
  4. A. T. Peana, S. Marzocco, A. Popolo, and A. Pinto, “(-)-Linalool inhibits in vitro NO formation: Probable involvement in the antinociceptive activity of this monoterpene compound,” Life Sci., vol. 78, no. 7, pp. 719–723, Jan. 2006.
  5. M. Linck, A. L. da Silva, M. Figueiró, A. L. Piato, A. P. Herrmann, F. Dupont Birck, E. B. Caramão, D. S. Nunes, P. R. H. Moreno, and E. Elisabetsky, “Inhaled linalool-induced sedation in mice,” Phytomedicine Int. J. Phytother. Phytopharm., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 303–307, Apr. 2009.
  6. T. Umezu, “Evaluation of the Effects of Plant-derived Essential Oils on Central Nervous System Function Using Discrete Shuttle-type Conditioned Avoidance Response in Mice: ESSENTIAL OILS AND AVOIDANCE RESPONSE,” Phytother. Res., vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 884–891, Jun. 2012.
  7. K. Kuroda, N. Inoue, Y. Ito, K. Kubota, A. Sugimoto, T. Kakuda, and T. Fushiki, “Sedative effects of the jasmine tea odor and (R)-(-)-linalool, one of its major odor components, on autonomic nerve activity and mood states,” Eur. J. Appl. Physiol., vol. 95, no. 2–3, pp. 107–114, Oct. 2005.
  8. E. Barocelli, F. Calcina, M. Chiavarini, M. Impicciatore, R. Bruni, A. Bianchi, and V. Ballabeni, “Antinociceptive and gastroprotective effects of inhaled and orally administered Lavandula hybrida Reverchon ‘Grosso’ essential oil,” Life Sci., vol. 76, no. 2, pp. 213–223, Nov. 2004.

The Importance of Sourcing
Satyal P, Murray BL, McFeeters RL, et al. Essential Oil Characterization of Thymus vulgaris from Various Geographical Locations. Foods. 2016;5(4). doi: 10.3390/foods5040070.

doTERRA Balance® Grounding Blend

Chang S. Effects of aroma hand massage on pain, state anxiety and depression in hospice patients with terminal cancer. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi. 2008;38(4):493–502.
 
AromaTouch® Oil Blend: Chemistry of Usage

  1. Kuriyama H, Watanabe S, Nakaya T, et al. Immunological and Psychological Benefits of Aromatherapy Massage. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2005;2(2):179-184.
  2. Johnson JR, Rivard RL, Griffin KH, et al. The effectiveness of nurse-delivered aromatherapy in an acute care setting. Complement Ther Med. 2016;25:164-9.
  3. Varney E, Buckle J. Effect of inhaled essential oils on mental exhaustion and moderate burnout: a small pilot study. J Altern Complement Med. 2013;19(1):69-71.
  4. Toda M, Morimoto K. Effect of lavender aroma on salivary endocrinological stress markers. Arch Oral Biol. 2008;53(10):964-968.
  5. Cooke M, Holzhauser K, Jones M, Et Al. The effect of aromatherapy massage with music on the stress and anxiety levels of emergency nurses: comparison between summer and winter. J Clin Nurs. 2007;16(9):1695-1703.
  6. Lima NG, De Sousa DP, Pimenta FC, Et Al. Anxiolytic-like activity and GC-MS analysis of (R)-(+)-limonene fragrance, a natural compound found in foods and plants. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2013;103(3):450-454.
  7. de Almeida AA, Costa JP, de Carvalho RB, Et Al. Evaluation of acute toxicity of a natural compound (+)-limonene epoxide and its anxiolytic-like action. Brain Res. 2012;1448:56-62.
  8. Umezu T. Evaluation of the effects of plant-derived essential oils on central nervous system function using discrete shuttle-type conditioned avoidance response in mice. Phytother Res. 2012;26(6):884-891.

The Chemistry of Petitgrain Essential Oil

  1. Linck V, da Silva A, Figueiro M, Piato A, Herrmann A, Dupont Dirck F, Caramao E, Nunes D, Moreno P, and Elisabetsky E. Inhaled linalool-induced sedation in mice. Phytomedicine Int. J. Phytother. Phytopharm. 2009; 16(4):303-307.
  2. Umezu T. Evaluation of the effects of plant-derived essential oils on central nervous system function using discrete shuttle-type conditioned avoidance response in mice. Phytother. Res. 2012; 26(6):884-891.
  3. Kuroda K, Inoue N, Ito Y, Kubota K, Sugimoto A, Kakuda T, Fushiki T. Sedative effects of the jasmine tea odor and (R)-(-)-linalool, one of its major odor components, on autonomic nerve activity and mood states. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 2005; 95(2-3):107-114.
  4. Tadtong S, Suppawat S, Tintawee A, Saramas P, Jareonvong S, Hongratanaworakit T. Antimicrobial activity of blended essential oil preparation. Nat. Prod. Commun. 2012; 7(10):1401-1404.
  5. Ellouze I, Abderrabba M, Sabaou N, Mathieu F, Lebrihi A, Bouajila J. Season's variation impact on Citrus aurantium leaves essential oil: chemical composition and biological activities. J. Food Sci. 2012; 77(9):T173-180.
  6. Koto R, Imamura M, Watanabe C, Obayashi S, Shiraishi M, Sasaki Y, Azuma H. Linalyl acetate as a major ingredience of lavender essential oil relaxes the rabbit vascular smooth muscle through dephosphorylation of myosin light chain. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 2006; 48(1):850-856.
  7. Barocelli E, Calcina F, Chiavarini M, Impicciatore M, Bruni R, Bianchi A, Ballabeni V. Antinociceptive and gastroprotective effects of inhaled and orally administered Lavandula hybrida Reverchon Grosso essential oil. Life Sci. 2004; 76(2):213-223.
  8. Peana A, D'Aquila P, Panin F, Serra G, Pippia P, Moretti M. Anti-inflammatory activity of linalool and linalyl acetate constituents of essential oils. Phytomedicine Int. J. Phytother. Pyhtopharm. 2002; 9(8): 921-726.
  9. Takahashi M, Satou T, Ohashi M, Hayashi S, Sadamoto K, Koike K. Interspecies comparison of chemical composition and anxiolytic-like effects of lavender oils upon inhalation. Nat. Prod. Commun. 2011; 6(11):1769-1774.
  10. Sarrou E, Chatzopoulou P, Dimassi-Theriou K, Therios I. Volatile Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Peel, Flowers and Leaf Oils of Citrus aurantium L. Growing in Greece. Molecules. 2013; 18(9): 10639-10647.
  11. Chaiyana W, Okonogi S. Inhibition of cholinesterase by essential oil from food plant. Phytomedicine Int. J. Phytother. Phytopharm. 2012; 19(8-9):836-839.

Monoterpenes: Taking a Deeper Breath

Paparoupa M, Gillissen A. Is Myrtol® Standardized a New Alternative toward Antibiotics? Pharmacogn Rev. 2016;10(20):143-146. DOI: 10.4103/0973-7847.194045.

The Antioxidant Benefits of Carvacrol
Türkez H, Aydın E. Investigation of cytotoxic, genotoxic and oxidative properties of carvacrol in human blood cells. Toxicol Ind Health. 2016;32(4):625-33. doi: 10.1177/0748233713506771.

Marjoram Essential Oil May Support Neurological Function

  1. Cummings JL, Vinters HV, Cole GM, Khachaturian ZS. Alzheimer's disease: Etiologies, pathophysiology. Cognitive reserve and treatment opportunities. Neurology. 1988;51:2-17
  2. Hajlaoui H, Mighri H, Aouni M, Gharsallah N, Kadri A. Chemical composition and in vitro evaluation of antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxicity and anti-acetylcholinesterase properties of Tunisian Origanum majorana L. essential oil. Microb Pathog. 2016;95:86-94. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2016.03.003.

Plants Smell Terpenes
Matsui K. A portion of plant airborne communication is endorsed by uptake and metabolism of volatile organic compounds. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2016;32:24-30. doi:10.1016/j.pbi.2016.05.005.

Eucalyptol and Seasonal Support
Li Y, Lai Y, Wang Y, Liu N, Zhang F, Xu P. 1, 8-Cineol Protect Against Influenza-Virus-Induced Pneumonia in Mice. Inflammation. 2016;39(4):1582-1593. doi:10.1007/s10753-016-0394-3.

Genetics of Lemongrass Essential Oil
Meena S, Kumar SR, Venkata Rao DK, et al. De Novo Sequencing and Analysis of Lemongrass Transcriptome Provide First Insights into the Essential Oil Biosynthesis of Aromatic Grasses. Front Plant Sci. 2016;7:1129. doi:10.3389/fpls.2016.01129.

Carvacrol and Thymol Support Healthy Immuno-Respiratory Resopnse in vitro 
Khosravi AR, Erle DJ. Chitin-Induced Airway Epithelial Cell Innate Immune Responses Are Inhibited by Carvacrol/Thymol. PLoS ONE11(7):e0159459.
 
Vetiver is an Environmental Superhero

  1. Joy RJ. "Sunshine" Vetivergrass Chrysopogon zizanoides (L.) Roberty. USDA NRCS Plant Guid.
  2. Banerjee R, Goswami P, Pathak K, Mukherjee A. Vetiver grass: An environmental clean-up tool for heavy metal contaminated iron ore mine-soil. Ecol Eng. 2016;90:25-34.
  3. Singh V, Thakur L, Mondal P. Removal of Lead and Chromium from Synthetic Wastewater Using Vetiveria zizanoides. CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water. 2015; 43(4):538-543.
  4. Vargas C. Perez-Esteban J, Escolastico C, Masaguer A, Moliner A. Phytoremediation of Cu and Zn by vetiver grass in mine soils amended with humic acids. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2016; 23(13):13521-13530.

Caryophyllene is a Cannabinoid

  1. Gertsch J, Leonti M, Raduner S. et al. Beta-caryophyllene is a dietary cannabinoid. Proc Nac Acad Sci. 2008; 105(26):9099-9104.
  2. Nikan M, Nabavi SM, Manayi A, Ligands for cannabinoid receptors, promising anticancer agents. Life Sci. 2016; 146:124-130.

Terpenes in the Air

  1. Alves EG, Jardine K, Tota J, et al. Seasonality of isoprenoid emissions from a primary rainforest in central Amazonia. Atmos Chem Phys. 2016; 16(6):3903-3925.
  2. Geron C, Rasmussen R, R. Arnts R, Guenther A. A review and synthesis of monoterpene speciation from forests in the United States. Atmos Environ. 2000; 34(11):1761-1781.

Oregano Supports Healthy Intestinal Morphology
Zou Y, Xiang Q, Wang J, et al. Oregano Essential Oil Improves Intestinal Morphology and Expression of Tight Junction Proteins Associated with Modulation of Selected Intestinal Bacteria and Immune Status in a Pig Model. Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:1-11.

Evolution of Spiders to Take Advantage of Essential Oils
Tedore C, Johnsen S. Immunological dependence of plant-dwelling animals on the medicinal properties of their plant substrates: a preliminary test of a novel evolutionary hypothesis. Arthropod Plant Interact. 2015; 9(5):437-446.

Spearmint and Dill May Support Healthy Nervous System Function

Nogoceke FP, Barcaro IMR, de Sousa DP, Andreatini R. Antimanic-like effects of (R)-(-)-carvone and (S)-(+)-carvone in mice. Neurosci Lett. 2016:619:43-48.

Lice Repelled by Clove Oil

  1. Soonwera M, Wongnet O, Sittichok S. Ovicidal effect of essential oils from Zingiberaceae plants and Eucalytus globulus on eggs of head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer. Phytomedicine. 2018;47:93-104. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2018.04.050.
  2. Iwamatsu T, Miyamoto D, Mitsuno H, et al. Identification of repellent odorants to the body louse, Pediculus humanus corporis, in clove essential oil. Parasitol Res. 2016;115(4):1659-1666.

Omega-3 Supplementation Supports Full-Term Birth*
Kar S, Wong M, Rogozinska E, Thangaratinam S. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Prevention of Early Preterm Delivery: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomised Studies. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2015;198:40-46.
 

Linalool May Support Healthy Functioning of the Brain
Sabogal-Guáqueta AM, Osorio E, Cardona-Gómez GP. Linalool reverses neuropathological and behavioral impairments in old triple transgenic Alzheimer’s mice. Neuropharmacology. 2015;102:111-120.
 

Healthy Inflammation Response with Carvacrol
Kara M, Uslu S, Demirci F, Temel HE, Baydemir C. Supplemental carvacrol can reduce the severity of inflammation by influencing the production of mediators of inflammation. Inflammation. 2015;38(3):1020-1027.

Geraniol and Colon Health

  1. Soubh AA, Abdallah DM, El-Abhar HS. Geraniol ameliorates TNBS-induced colitis: Involvement of Wnt/β-catenin, p38MAPK, NFκB, and PPARγ signaling pathways. Life Sci. 2015;136:142-150.
  2. Marieb E, Hoehn K. Human Anatomy & Physiology. Boston: Pearson; 2013.
  3. De Fazio L, Spisni E, Cavazza E, et al. Dietary Geraniol by Oral or Enema Administration Strongly Reduces Dysbiosis and Systemic Inflammation in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Treated Mice. Front Pharmacol. 2016:7:38.

Research Shows that Concentration Matters 
Llana-Ruiz-Cabello M, Gutiérrez-Praena D, Puerto M, Pichardo S, Jos Á, Cameán AM. In vitro pro-oxidant/antioxidant role of carvacrol, thymol and their mixture in the intestinal Caco-2 cell line. Toxicol In Vitro. 2015;29(4):647-656. 


Cinnamaldehyde May Support Healthy Kidney Function  

Huang J-S, Lee Y-H, Chuang L-Y, Guh J-Y, Hwang J-Y. Cinnamaldehyde and nitric oxide attenuate advanced glycation end products-induced the Jak/STAT signaling in human renal tubular cells. J Cell Biochem. 2015;116(6):1028-1038.


Potential Healthy Colon Cell Support with Cinnamaldehyde 
 
Long M, Tao S, Rojo de la Vega M, et al. Nrf2-dependent suppression of azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium-induced colon carcinogenesis by the cinnamon-derived dietary factor cinnamaldehyde. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2015;8(5):444-454.
 

Clove’s Eugenol Helps Maintain Normal Gastrointestinal Motility
Garabadu D, Shah A, Singh S, Krishnamurthy S. Protective effect of eugenol against restraint stress-induced gastrointestinal dysfunction: Potential use in irritable bowel syndrome. Pharm Biol. 2015;53(7):968-974.

Sandalwood May Support Healthy Cell Renewal

  1. Bianconi E, Piovesan A, Facchin F, et al. An estimation of the number of cells in the human body. Ann Hum Biol. 40(6):463-471.
  2. Santha S, Dwivedi C. Anticancer Effects of Sandalwood (Santalum album). Anticancer Res. 2015;35(6):3137-3145. 

Reduce Sad Feelings with Essential Oils  
Guzmán-Gutiérrez SL, Bonilla-Jaime H, Gómez-Cansino R, Reyes-Chilpa R. Linalool and β-pinene exert their antidepressant-like activity through the monoaminergic pathway. Life Sci. 2015;128:24-29.
 
Rose Plant Communication Helps Other Plants
Yu P, Su Y, Dong C, Yao C, Ding Y, Zhou X. Preliminary proteomic analysis of tobacco leaves affected by volatile organic compounds from floral scent of rose. Plant Growth Regul. 2014;75(3):689-694.

The Neuroprotective Effects of Beta-Caryophyllene

  1. Zhang HY, Gao M, Shen H, Bi GH, Yang HJ, Liu QR, Wu J, Gardner EL, Bonci A, Xi ZX (2016). "Expression of functional cannabinoid CB2 receptor in VTA dopamine neurons in rats". Addiction Biology. 
  2. Stempel AV, Stumpf A, Zhang HY, Özdoğan T, Pannasch U, Theis AK, Otte DM, Wojtalla A, Rácz I, Ponomarenko A, Xi ZX, Zimmer A, Schmitz D (2016). "Cannabinoid Type 2 Receptors Mediate a Cell Type-Specific Plasticity in the Hippocampus." Neuron. 90 (4): 795–809
  3. Elphick MR, Egertová M (Mar 2001). "The neurobiology and evolution of cannabinoid signalling". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 356 (1407): 381–408
  4. Viveros-Paredes JM, González-Castañeda RE, Gertsch J. Neuroprotective Effects of β-Caryophyllene against Dopaminergic Neuron Injury in a Murine Model of Parkinson’s Disease Induced by MPTP. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2017 Jul 6;10(3). pii: E60. doi: 10.3390/ph10030060.

Active Travel in Air Pollution

Tainio M, De nazelle AJ, Götschi T, et al. Can air pollution negate the health benefits of cycling and walking?. Prev Med. 2016;87:233-236.

Reliable Sources on Essential Oil Research

  1. PubMed. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/
  2. Google Scholar. https://scholar.google.com/
  3. AromaticScience. http://www.aromaticscience.com/

Lemon Oil and Cardiovascular Health

Lee H, Woo M, Kim M, et al. Antioxidative and Cholesterol-Lowering Effects of Lemon Essential Oil in Hypercholesterolemia-Induced Rabbits. Prev Nutr Food Sci. 2018;23(1):8-14.
 

Sustaining Our Soil

Arsenault C. Only 60 Years of Farming Left If Soil Degradation Continues. Scientificamerican.com. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/only-60-years-of-farming-left-if-soil-degradation-continues/. Published December 5, 2014. Accessed May 31, 2018.
 

Tick-Repellent Properties of Essential Oils

  1. Other TBDs | Partnership for Tick-borne Diseases Education. (n.d.). Retrieved June 27, 2017, from https://www.partnershipfortick-bornediseaseseducation.org/tick-borne-diseases-overview/other-tbds/
  2. Štefanidesová K, Škultéty Ľ, Sparagano OAE et al. The repellent efficacy of eleven essential oils against adult Dermacentor reticulatus ticks. Tick Borne Dis. 2017 Jun 15. pii: S1877-959X(17)30077-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2017.06.003

Age, Memory, and Essential Oils

  1. Takahashi, R. H., Nagao, T., & Gouras, G. K. (2017). Plaque formation and the intraneuronal accumulation of β-amyloid in Alzheimers disease. Pathology International, 67(4), 185-193. doi:10.1111/pin.12520
  2. Lobbens, E. S., Vissing, K. J., Jorgensen, L., Weert, M. V., & Jäger, A. K. (2017). Screening of plants used in the European traditional medicine to treat memory disorders for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and anti amyloidogenic activity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 200, 66-73. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2017.02.020
  3. Ayaz, M., Sadiq, A., Junaid, M., Ullah, F., Subhan, F., & Ahmed, J. (2017). Neuroprotective and Anti-Aging Potentials of Essential Oils from Aromatic and Medicinal Plants. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 9. doi:10.3389/fnagi.2017.00168

Psychological and Neurological Effects of Roman Chamomile

  1. Kong, Y., Wang, T., Wang, R., Ma, Y., Song, S., Liu, J., . . . Li, S. (2017). Inhalation of Roman chamomile essential oil attenuates depressive-like behaviors in Wistar Kyoto rats. Science China Life Sciences. doi:10.1007/s11427-016-9034-8
  2. Marieb, E. N., Hoehn, K., & Hutchinson, M. (2013). Human anatomy & physiology. San Francisco, CA: Pearson Education/Benjamin Cummings.

Skin Aging and Essential Oils

Hwang, E., Ngo, H. T., Park, B., Seo, S., Yang, J., & Yi, T. (2017). Myrcene, An Aromatic Volatile Compound, Ameliorates Human Skin Extrinsic Aging via Regulation of MMPs Production. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 1-12. doi:10.1142/s0192415x17500604
 

Fennel Oil and Healthy Inflammatory Response

Rezayat SM, Dehpour AR, Motamed SM, et al. Foeniculum vulgare essential oil ameliorates acetic acid-induced colitis in rats through the inhibition of NF-kB pathway. Inflammopharmacology. 2017 Oct 24. doi: 10.1007/s10787-017-0409-1.
 

Geranium Oil Alleviates Anxious Feelings

Shirzadegan R, Gholami M, Hasanvand S, et al. Effects of geranium aroma on anxiety among patients with acute myocardial infarction: A triple-blind randomized clinical trial. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2017;29:201-206. doi: 10.1016/j.ctcp.2017.10.005.
 

Childbirth and Essential Oils

  1. Dhany AL, Mitchell T, Foy C. Aromatherapy and massage intrapartum service impact on use of analgesia and anesthesia in women in labor: A retrospective case note analysis. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2012;18(10):932-938.
  2. Rashidi Fakari F, Tabatabaeichehr M, Kamali H, et al. Effect of Inhalation of Aroma of Geranium Essence on Anxiety and Physiological Parameters during First Stage of Labor in Nulliparous Women: a Randomized Clinical Trial. J Caring Sci. 2015;4(2):135-141.
  3. Namazi M, Amir Ali Akbari S, Mojab F, Et Al. Aromatherapy With Citrus Aurantium Oil and Anxiety During the First Stage of Labor. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2014;16(6):e18371.
  4. Burns E, Blamey C, Ersser SJ, et al. The use of aromatherapy in intrapartum midwifery practice an observational study. Complement Ther Nurs Midwifery. 2000;6(1):33-34.
  5. Cruz AB, Lee SE, Pagaduan JC, et al. Effects of lavender (lavandula angustifolia Mill.) and peppermint (Mentha cordifolia Opiz.) aromas on subjective vitality, speed, and agility. The Asian International Journal of Life Sciences. 2012;21(1):31-37.
  6. Moss M, Hewitt S, Moss L. Modulation of cognitive performance and mood by aromas of peppermint and ylang ylang. Intern. J. Neuroscience. 2008;118:59-77.
  7. Jafarzadeh M, Arman S, Pour FF. Effect of aromatherapy with orange essential oil on salivary cortisol and pulse rate in children during dental treatment: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Adv Biomed Res. 2013;2:10.
  8. Lehrner J, Marwinski G, Lehr S, et al. Ambient odors of orange and lavender reduce anxiety and improve mood in a dental office. Physiol Behav. 2005;86(1-2):92-95.
  9. Lehrner J, Eckersberger C, Walla P, et al. Ambient odor of orange in a dental office reduces anxiety and improves mood in female patients. Physiol Behav. 2000;71(1-2):83-86.
  10. Dale A, Cornwell S. The role of lavender oil in relieving perineal discomfort following childbirth: a blind randomized clinical trial. J Adv Nurs.1994;19(1):89-96.
  11. Sheikhan F, Jahdi F, Khoei EM, Et Al. Episiotomy pain relief: Use of Lavender oil essence in primiparous Iranian women. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2012;18(1):66-70.
  12. Jones C. The efficacy of lavender oil on perineal trauma: a review of the evidence. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2011;17(4):215-220.
  13. Vakilian K, Atarha M, Bekhradi R, Et Al. Healing advantages of lavender essential oil during episiotomy recovery: a clinical trial. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2011;17(1):50-53.
  14. Hur MH, Han SH. Clinical trial of aromatherapy on postpartum mother's perineal healing. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi. 2004;34(1):53-62.

Fear of Dental Visits

  1. Walsh L. Anxiety prevention: Implementing the 4 S principle in conservative dentistry. Auxiliary. 2007;17:24–6.
  2. Locker D. Psychosocial consequences of dental fear and anxiety. Commun Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2003;31:144–51.
  3. Umezu T. Evaluation of the Effects of Plant-derived Essential Oils on Central Nervous System Function Using Discrete Shuttle-type Conditioned Avoidance Response in Mice: ESSENTIAL OILS AND AVOIDANCE RESPONSE. Phytother. Res., 2012;26(6):884–891.
  4. Jafarzadeh M., Arman S., and Pour F. Effect of aromatherapy with orange essential oil on salivary cortisol and pulse rate in children during dental treatment: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Adv Biomed Res. 2013; 2: 10.

Nanoemulsion of Essential Oils

Borges RS, Lima ES, Keita H et al. Anti-inflammatory and antialgic actions of a nanoemulsion of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil and a molecular docking study of its major chemical constituents. Inflammopharmacology. 2017 Jul 13. doi: 10.1007/s10787-017-0374-8. 
 

Linalool and Blood Vessels
Kang P, Seol GH. Linalool elicits vasorelaxation of mouse aortae through activation of guanylyl cyclase and K(+) channels. J Pharm Pharmacol.2015;67(5):714-719.
 

A Chemist's Perspective: Cannabinoids, Cannabis, and Caryophyllene



  1. Gertsch J, Leonti M, Raduner S et al. Beta-caryophyllene is a dietary cannabinoid. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jul 1;105(26):9099-104. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0803601105. Epub 2008 Jun 23.
  2. Klauke AL, Racz I, Pradier B et al. The cannabinoid CB₂ receptor-selective phytocannabinoid beta-caryophyllene exerts analgesic effects in mouse models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2014 Apr;24(4):608-20. doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2013.10.008. Epub 2013 Oct 22.
  3. Al Mansouri S, Ojha S, Al Maamari E et al. The cannabinoid receptor 2 agonist, β-caryophyllene, reduced voluntary alcohol intake and attenuated ethanol-induced place preference and sensitivity in mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2014 Sep;124:260-8. doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2014.06.025. Epub 2014 Jul 3.
  4. Quintans-Júnior LJ, Araújo AA et al. β-caryophyllene, a dietary cannabinoid, complexed with β-cyclodextrin produced anti-hyperalgesic effect involving the inhibition of Fos expression in superficial dorsal horn. Life Sci. 2016 Mar 15;149:34-41. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2016.02.049. Epub 2016 Feb 13.
  5. Chicca A, Caprioglio D, Minassi A et al. Functionalization of β-caryophyllene generates novel polypharmacology in the endocannabinoid system. ACS Chem Biol. 2014 Jul 18;9(7):1499-507. doi: 10.1021/cb500177c. Epub 2014 May 15.
  6. Horváth B, Mukhopadhyay P, Kechrid M et al. β-Caryophyllene ameliorates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in a cannabinoid 2 receptor-dependent manner. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012 Apr 15;52(8):1325-33. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.01.014. Epub 2012 Jan 31.
  7. Fine PG, Rosenfeld MJ. The endocannabinoid system, cannabinoids, and pain. Rambam Maimonides Med J. 2013 Oct 29;4(4):e0022. doi: 10.5041/RMMJ.10129. eCollection 2013.
  8. Alberti TB, Barbosa WL, Vieira JL, Raposo NR, Dutra RC. (-)-β-Caryophyllene, a CB2 Receptor-Selective Phytocannabinoid, Suppresses Motor Paralysis and Neuroinflammation in a Murine Model of Multiple Sclerosis. Int J Mol Sci. 2017 Apr 1;18(4). pii: E691. doi: 10.3390/ijms18040691.
  9. Lou J, Teng Z, Zhang L, Yang J, Ma L, Wang F, Tian X, An R, Yang M, Zhang Q, Xu L, Dong Z. β-Caryophyllene/Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex Improves Cognitive Deficits in Rats with Vascular Dementia through the Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2 -Mediated Pathway. Front Pharmacol. 2017 Jan 19;8:2. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2017.00002. eCollection 2017.
  10. Bahi A, Al Mansouri S, Al Memari E, Al Ameri M, Nurulain SM, Ojha S. β-Caryophyllene, a CB2 receptor agonist produces multiple behavioral changes relevant to anxiety and depression in mice. Physiol Behav. 2014 Aug;135:119-24. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.06.003. Epub 2014 Jun 13
  11. Kamikubo R, Kai K, Tsuji-Naito K, Akagawa M.β-Caryophyllene attenuates palmitate-induced lipid accumulation through AMPK signaling by activating CB2 receptor in human HepG2 hepatocytes. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016 Oct;60(10):2228-2242. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201600197. Epub 2016 Jun 16.
  12. Bento AF, Marcon R, Dutra RC, Claudino RF, Cola M, Leite DF, Calixto JB. β-Caryophyllene inhibits dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice through CB2 receptor activation and PPARγ pathway. Am J Pathol. 2011 Mar;178(3):1153-66. doi: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2010.11.052.
  13. Cheng Y, Dong Z, Liu S. β-Caryophyllene ameliorates the Alzheimer-like phenotype in APP/PS1 Mice through CB2 receptor activation and the PPARγ pathway. Pharmacology. 2014;94(1-2):1-12. doi: 10.1159/000362689. Epub 2014 Aug 26.
  14. Sourcing CBD: Marijuana, Industrial Hemp & the Vagaries of Federal Law. (n.d.). Retrieved September 26, 2017, from https://www.projectcbd.org/about/cannabis-facts/sourcing-cbd-marijuana-industrial-hemp-vagaries-federal-law

Lavender Oil and Serotonin

 

  1. López, V., Nielsen, B., Solas, M., Ramírez, M. J., & Jäger, A. K. (2017). Exploring Pharmacological Mechanisms of Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) Essential Oil on Central Nervous System Targets. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 8. doi:10.3389/fphar.2017.00280
  2. Rajdev, S., & Sharp, F. R. (1998). Neurotoxiciy of NMDA Receptor Antagonists. Highly Selective Neurotoxins, 355-384. doi:10.1007/978-1-59259-477-1_14
  3. Kandel, E. R., Schwartz, J. H., & Jessell, T. M. (1991). Principles of neural science. New York: Elsevier.

The Many Benefits of Quercetin


Anand David AV, Arulmoli R, Parasuraman S. Overviews of biological importance of quercetin: A bioactive flavonoid. Phcog Rev 2016;10:84-9.
 
 

The Necessity of Sleep

 

  1. Kaufmann T, Elvsåshagen T, Alnæs D, et al. The brain functional connectome is robustly altered by lack of sleep. Neuroimage. 2016;127:324-332. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.12.028.
  2. The importance of sleep. NIH Medline Plus. 2012;7:17. https://medlineplus.gov/magazine/issues/summer12/articles/summer12pg17.html. Accessed January 5, 2017.
  3. Why is sleep important? nhlbi.nih.gov. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/sdd/why. Published February 22, 2012. Accessed January 5, 1017. 

Sunlight Energizes T-Cells
Phan T, Jaruga B, Pingle S, Bandyopadhyay B, Ahern G. Intrinsic photosensitivity enhances motility of T lymphocytes. Scientific Reports. 2016;6:39479. 
 
 

Oxidized Monoterpenes
Brared Christensson J, Karlberg A-T, Andersen KE, et al. Oxidized limonene and oxidized linalool - concomitant contact allergy to common fragrance terpenes. Contact Dermatitis. 2016;74(5):273-280.
 
Safety of Peppermint (menthol) and Eucalyptus (1,8-cineole) Use in Children

  1. Sadlon AE, Lamson DW. Immune-modifying and antimicrobial effects of eucalyptus oil and simple inhalation devices. Altern Med Rev.2010;15(1):33-47.
  2. Serafino A, Sinibaldi Vallebona P, Andreola F, et al. Stimulatory effect of Eucalyptus essential oil on innate cell-mediated immune response. BMC Immunol. 2008;9:17.
  3. Ben-Arye E, Dudai N, Eini A, et al. Treatment of upper respiratory tract infections in primary care: a randomized study using aromatic herbs. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011;690346.
  4. Korterink JJ, Rutten JMTM, Venmans L, Benninga MA, Tabbers MM. Pharmacologic Treatment in Pediatric Functional Abdominal Pain Disorders: A Systematic Review. J Pediatr. 2015;166(2):424-431.e6.
  5. Khanna R, MacDonald JK, Levesque BG. Peppermint Oil for the Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome. J Clin Gastroenterol.2014;48(6):505-512.

Essential Oil Cellular Activity

  1. Bianconi E, Piovesan A, Facchin F, et al. An estimation of the number of cells in the human body. Ann Hum Biol. 40(6):463-471.
  2. Wilhelm M, Schlegl J, Hahne H, et al. Mass-spectrometry-based draft of the human proteome. Nature. 2014;509(7502):582-587.
  3. Long M, Tao S, Rojo de la Vega M, et al. Nrf2-dependent suppression of azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium-induced colon carcinogenesis by the cinnamon-derived dietary factor cinnamaldehyde. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2015;8(5):444-454.
  4. Kara M, Uslu S, Demirci F, Temel HE, Baydemir C. Supplemental carvacrol can reduce the severity of inflammation by influencing the production of mediators of inflammation. Inflammation. 2015;38(3):1020-1027. 

Peppermint & Ion Channels

  1. Oz M, Lozon Y, Sultan A, Yang K-HS, Galadari S. Effects of monoterpenes on ion channels of excitable cells. Pharmacol Ther. 2015;152:83-97.
  2. Pan R, Tian Y, Gao R, et al. Central mechanisms of menthol-induced analgesia. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2012;343(3):661-672. 

Is it Safe to Ingest Essential Oils?

  1. Coelho-de-Souza AN, Lahlou S, Barreto JEF, et al. Essential oil of Croton zehntneri and its major constituent anethole display gastroprotective effect by increasing the surface mucous layer. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2013;27(3):288-298.
  2. Guesmi F, Ben Ali M, Barkaoui T, et al. Effects of Thymus hirtus sp. algeriensis Boiss. et Reut. (Lamiaceae) essential oil on healing gastric ulcers according to sex. Lipids Health Dis. 2014;13(1):138.
  3. Moraes TM, Kushima H, Moleiro FC, et al. Effects of limonene and essential oil from Citrus aurantium on gastric mucosa: role of prostaglandins and gastric mucus secretion. Chem Biol Interact. 2009;180(3):499-505.
  4. Moraes TM, Rozza AL, Kushima H, Pellizzon CH, Rocha LRM, Hiruma-Lima CA. Healing actions of essential oils from Citrus aurantium and d-limonene in the gastric mucosa: the roles of VEGF, PCNA, and COX-2 in cell proliferation. J Med Food. 2013;16(12):1162-1167.
  5. Santin JR, Lemos M, Klein-Júnior LC, et al. Gastroprotective activity of essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum and its major component eugenol in different animal models. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2011;383(2):149-158.
  6. Takayama C, de-Faria FM, de Almeida ACA, et al. Gastroprotective and ulcer healing effects of essential oil from Hyptis spicigera Lam. (Lamiaceae). J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;135(1):147-155. 

A Fresh Look at Dilution 

  1. Marieb E, Hoehn K. Human Anatomy & Physiology. Boston: Pearson; 2013.
  2. Sapra B, Jain S, Tiwary AK. Percutaneous permeation enhancement by terpenes: mechanistic view. AAPS J. 2008;10(1):120-132.
  3. Cal K, Kupiec K, Sznitowska M. Effect of physicochemical properties of cyclic terpenes on their ex vivo skin absorption and elimination kinetics. J Dermatol Sci. 2006;41(2):137-142.
  4. Cal K, Sopala M. Tremendous ex vivo child skin absorption and permeation of eucalyptol. J Dermatol Sci. 2008;52(2):139-140.
  5. Cal K. How does the type of vehicle influence the in vitro skin absorption and elimination kinetics of terpenes? Arch Dermatol Res.2006;297(7):311-315.
  6. Jacobi U, Taube H, Schäfer UF, Sterry W, Lademann J. Comparison of four different in vitro systems to study the reservoir capacity of the stratum corneum. J Control Release. 2005;103(1):61-71.
  7. Pelchrzim R v., Weigmann H-J, Schaefer H, et al. Determination of the formation of the stratum corneum reservoir for two different corticosteroid formulations using tape stripping combined with UV/VIS spectroscopy. Bestimmung der Ausbildung des Reservoirs innerhalb des Stratum corneum fur zwei unterschi. J der Dtsch Dermatologischen Gesellschaft. 2004;2(11):914-919.
  8. Rawlings A V., Harding CR. Moisturization and skin barrier function. Dermatol Ther. 2004;17(s1):43-48. 

Unique Character of Essential Oils

  1. Baldinger P, Höflich AS, Mitterhauser M, et al. Effects of Silexan on the serotonin-1A receptor and microstructure of the human brain: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over study with molecular and structural neuroimaging. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol.2015;18(4).
  2. Gostner JM, Ganzera M, Becker K, et al. Lavender oil suppresses indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity in human PBMC. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014;14:503.
  3. Sebai H, Selmi S, Rtibi K, Gharbi N, Sakly M. Protective Effect of Lavandula stoechas and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils against reproductive damage and oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. J Med Food. 2015;18(2):241-249.
  4. Dawidowicz AL, Olszowy M. Does antioxidant properties of the main component of essential oil reflect its antioxidant properties? The comparison of antioxidant properties of essential oils and their main components. Nat Prod Res. 2014;(801):1-12. 

Internal Use of Essential Oils

  1. Zhao H, Xie Y, Yang Q, et al. Pharmacokinetic study of cinnamaldehyde in rats by GC-MS after oral and intravenous administration. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2014;89:150-157.
  2. Chang W, Han L, Huang H, et al. Simultaneous determination of four volatile compounds in rat plasma after oral administration of Shexiang Baoxin Pill (SBP) by HS-SPDE-GC–MS/MS and its application to pharmacokinetic studies. J Chromatogr B. 2014;963:47-53.
  3. D’Alessio P a., Ostan R, Bisson JF, Schulzke JD, Ursini M V., Béné MC. Oral administration of d-Limonene controls inflammation in rat colitis and displays anti-inflammatory properties as diet supplementation in humans. Life Sci. 2013;92:1151-1156.
  4. Crowell PL. Symposium on Phytochemicals : Biochemistry and Physiology Prevention and Therapy of Cancer by Dietary Monoterpenes 1. Exp Biol. 1999:775-778.
  5. Liu JH, Chen GH, Yeh HZ, Huang CK, Poon SK. Enteric-coated peppermint-oil capsules in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective, randomized trial. J Gastroenterol. 1997;32:765-768.
  6. Talpur N, Echard B, Ingram C, Bagchi D, Preuss H. Effects of a novel formulation of essential oils on glucose-insulin metabolism in diabetic and hypertensive rats: a pilot study. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2005;7:193-199.
  7. Jager W. Metabolism of terpenoids in animal models and humans. In: Baser KHC, Buchbauer G, eds. Handbook of Essential Oils: Science, Technology, and Applications. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Taylor & Francis Group; 2010:209-234.
  8. 182.20 Essential Oils, Oleoresins (Solvent-Free), and Natural Extractives (Including Distillates).United States of America: 42 FR 14640, Mar. 15, 1977, unless otherwise noted; 2015. http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?rgn=div5&node=21:3.0.1.1.13#se21.3.182_120. 

Mucous Membranes and Essential Oils 

  1. Čapkovičová A, Maková Z, Piešová E, Alves A, Faix Š, Faixová Z. Evaluation of the effects of Salvia officinalis essential oil on plasma biochemistry, gut mucus and quantity of acidic and neutral mucins in the chicken gut. Acta Vet Brno. 2014;64(1):138-148.
  2. Cone RA. Barrier properties of mucus. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2009;61(2):75-85.
  3. Sigurdsson HH, Kirch J, Lehr C-M. Mucus as a barrier to lipophilic drugs. Int J Pharm. 2013;453(1):56-64.
  4. Marieb E, Hoehn K. Human Anatomy & Physiology. Boston: Pearson; 2013.
  5. Coelho-de-Souza AN, Lahlou S, Barreto JEF, et al. Essential oil of Croton zehntneri and its major constituent anethole display gastroprotective effect by increasing the surface mucous layer. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2013;27(3):288-298.
  6. Moraes TM, Kushima H, Moleiro FC, et al. Effects of limonene and essential oil from Citrus aurantium on gastric mucosa: role of prostaglandins and gastric mucus secretion. Chem Biol Interact. 2009;180(3):499-505.
  7. Moraes TM, Rozza AL, Kushima H, Pellizzon CH, Rocha LRM, Hiruma-Lima CA. Healing actions of essential oils from Citrus aurantium and d-limonene in the gastric mucosa: the roles of VEGF, PCNA, and COX-2 in cell proliferation. J Med Food. 2013;16(12):1162-1167.
  8. Voynow JA, Rubin BK. Mucins, mucus, and sputum. Chest. 2009;135(2):505-512.
  9. Ueno-Iio T, Shibakura M, Yokota K, et al. Lavender essential oil inhalation suppresses allergic airway inflammation and mucous cell hyperplasia in a murine model of asthma. Life Sci. 2014;108(2):109-115.
  10. Sudhoff H, Klenke C, Greiner JFW, et al. 1,8-Cineol Reduces Mucus-Production in a Novel Human Ex Vivo Model of Late Rhinosinusitis. PLoS One. 2015;10(7):e0133040. 

Bioactivity of Essential Oils

  1. Bakkali F, Averbeck S, Averbeck D, Idaomar M. Biological effects of essential oils - A review. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46:446-475.
  2. Dwivedi GR, Gupta S, Roy S, et al. Tricyclic sesquiterpenes from Vetiveria zizanoides (L.) Nash as antimycobacterial agents. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2013;82(5):587-594.
  3. Wang K, Li Z, Chen Y, Su C. The Pharmacokinetics of a Novel Anti-tumor Agent, b -Elemene, in Sprague-Dawley Rats. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2005;26:301-307.
  4. Wu XS, Xie T, Lin J, et al. An investigation of the ability of elemene to pass through the blood-brain barrier and its effect on brain carcinomas. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2009;61:1653-1656.   

Essential Oil Metabolism

  1. Levin J-O, Erikssom K, Falk A, Lof A. Renal elimination of verbenols in man following experimentsl alpha-pinene inhalation exposure. Int Arch Occup Env Heal. 1992;63:571-573.
  2. Jager W. Metabolism of terpenoids in animal models and humans. In: Baser KHC, Buchbauer G, eds. Handbook of Essential Oils: Science, Technology, and Applications. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Taylor & Francis Group; 2010:209-234.
  3. Chow HHS, Salazar D, Hakim I a. Pharmacokinetics of perillic acid in humans after a single dose administration of a citrus preparation rich in d-Limonene content. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002;11(November):1472-1476.
  4. Zhang Z, Chen H, Chan KK, Budd T, Ganapathi R. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of perillyl alcohol and metabolites in plasma. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 1999;728(1):85-95.
  5. Gelb MH, Tamanoi F, Yokoyama K, Ghomashchi F, Esson K, Gould MN. The inhibition of protein prenyltransferases by oxygenated metabolites of limonene and perillyl alcohol. Cancer Lett. 1995;91(2):169-175.
  6. Fukumoto S, Sawasaki E, Okuyama S, Miyake Y, Yokogoshi H. Flavor components of monoterpenes in citrus essential oils enhance the release of monoamines from rat brain slices. Nutr Neurosci. 2011;9(April 2006):73-80.
  7. Bickers D, Calow P, Greim H, et al. A toxicologic and dermatologic assessment of linalool and related esters when used as fragrance ingredients. Food Chem Toxicol. 2003;41(7):919-942.
  8. Kang P, Seol GH. Linalool elicits vasorelaxation of mouse aortae through activation of guanylyl cyclase and K(+) channels. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2015;67(5):714-719.
  9. Koto R, Imamura M, Watanabe C, et al. Linalyl acetate as a major ingredient of lavender essential oil relaxes the rabbit vascular smooth muscle through dephosphorylation of myosin light chain. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2006;48(1):850-856. 

Essential Oil Topical Application: To Dilute or Not to Dilute

  1. Jager W, Buchbauer G, Jirovetz L, Fritzer M. Percutaneous-Absorption Of Lavender Oil From A Massage Oil. J Soc Cosmet Chem.43(1):49-54.
  2. Bronaugh RL, Wester RC, Bucks D, Maibach HI, Sarason R. In vivo percutaneous absorption of fragrance ingredients in rhesus monkeys and humans. Food Chem Toxicol. 1990;28(5):369-373.
  3. Price S, Price L, eds. Aromatherapy for Health Professionals. 4th ed. Churchill Livingston Elsevier; 2012.

 

Health & Wellness
 

The Higher the Intensity, the Greater the Benefit
1. Kovacevic A., et al. The effects of aerobic exercise intensity on memory in older adults. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2019-0495
2. Heisz J., et al. The effects of physical exercise and cognitive training on memory and neurotrophic factors. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 2017;29(11):1895.

Turmeric and Metabolism
1. Hewlings S. and Kalman D. Curcumin: A review of its effects on human health. Foods2017;6(10):92.
2. Zhang D., et al. Curcumin and diabetes: A systematic review. Evidenced Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2013. doi: 10.1155/2013/636053
3. Chuengsamarn S., et al. Curcumin extract for prevention of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2012;35(11):2121-2127
4. Lekshmi P., et al. Turmeric(Curcuma longa L.) volatile oil inhibits key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes,” International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition. 2012;63(7):832–834.
5. Singh V., et al. Curcuma oil ameliorates hyperlipidaemia and associated deleterious effects in golden Syrian hamsters. British Journal of Nutrition. 2013;110(3):437-446.
6. Ganjali S., et al. Investigation of the effects of curcumin on serum cytokines in obese individuals: A randomized controlled trial. Scientific World Journal. 2014. doi: 10.1155/2014/898361.

What You Didn't Know About HIIT

1. Coetsee C. and Terblanche E. The effect of three different exercise training modalities on cognitive and physical function in a healthy older population. European Reviews of Aging and Physical Activity. 2017;14:13.
2. Falcone P., et al. Caloric expenditure of aerobic, resistance, or combined high-intensity interval training using a hydraulic resistance system in healthy men. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2015;29(3):779-785.
3. Wingfield H., et al. The acute effect of exercise modality and nutrition manipulations on post-exercise resting energy expenditure and respiratory exchange ratio in women: a randomized trial. Sports Medicine Open. 2015;1(1):11.
4. Skelly L., et al. High-intensity interval exercise induces 24-h energy expenditure similar to traditional endurance exercise despite reduced time commitment. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2014;39(7):845-848.
5. Hazell T., et al. Two minutes of sprint-interval exercise elicits 24-hr oxygen consumption similar to that of 30 min of continuous endurance exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2012;22(4):276-283.
6. Hamdy O., et al. Metabolic obesity: the paradox between visceral and subcutaneous fat. Current Diabetes Reviews. 2006;2(4):367-373.
7. Despres J. Cardiovascular disease under the influence of excess visceral fat. Critical Pathways in Cardiology. 2007;6(2):51-59.
8. Maillard F., Pereira B., and Boisseau N. effect of high-intensity interval training on total, abdominal and visceral fat mass: A meta-analysis. Sports Medicine. 2018;48(2):269.
9. Osawa Y., et al. Effects of 16-week high-intensity interval training using upper and lower body ergometers on aerobic fitness and morphological changes in healthy men: a preliminary study. Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine. 2014;5:257-265.
10. Jackson S., Weale M., and Weale R. Biological age: What is it and can it be measured? Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. 2003;36(2):103-115.
11. Robinson M., et al. Enhanced protein translation underlies improved metabolic and physical adaptations to different exercise training modes in young and old humans. Cell Metabolism. 2017;25(3):581.
12. Noorimofrad S. and Ebrahim K. The effect of high intensity interval training on telomere length and telomerase activity in non-athlete young men. Journal of Basic Research in Medical Sciences. 2018;5(2):1-7.

Maintaining Bone Health for Women
1. Lu J, Shin Y, Yen MS, et al. Peak Bone Mass and Patterns of Change in Total Bone Mineral Density and Bone Mineral Contents From Childhood Into Young Adulthood. J Clin Densitom. 2016;19(2):180-191.
2. Rathnayake H, Lekamwasam S, Wickramatilake C, et al. Trabecular bone score and bone mineral density reference data for women aged 20-70 years and the effect of local reference data on the prevalence of postmenopausal osteoporosis: a cross-sectional study from Sri Lanka. Arch Osteoporos. 2019;14(1):91.
3. Demontiero O, Vidal C, and Duque G. Aging and bone loss: new insights for the clinician. Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis. 2012;4(2):61-76.
4. Cashman KD. Diet, nutrition, and bone health. J Nutr 2007; 137 Suppl 11:2507S-12S.
5. Rizzoli R, Bianchi ML, Garabédian M, et al. Maximizing bone mineral mass gain during growth for the prevention of fractures in the adolescents and the elderly. Bone 2010; 46:294-305.
6. Ilesanmi-Oyelere BL, Brough L, Coad J, et al. The Relationship between Nutrient Patterns and Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women. Nutrients. 2019;11(6).
7. Hong AR and Kim SW. Effects of resistance exercise on bone health. Endocrinol Metab (Seoul). 2018;33(4):435-444.
8. Blumberg JB, Frei B, Fulgoni VL III, et al. Contribution of Dietary Supplements to Nutritional Adequacy in Race/Ethnic Population Subgroups in the United States. Nutrients. 2017;9(12).
9. Bierhals IO, Vaz JDS, Menezes AMB, et al. Milk consumption, dietary calcium intake and nutrient patterns from adolescence to early adulthood and its effect on bone mass: the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort. Cad Saude Publica. 2019;35(8):e00192418.
10. Lloyd T, Chinchilli VM, Johnson-Rollings N, et al. Adult female hip bone density reflects teenage sports-exercise patterns but not teenage calcium intake. Pediatrics 2000; 106:40-44.
11. Watson SL, Weeks BK, Weis LJ, et al. High-Intensity Resistance and Impact Training Improves Bone Mineral Density and Physical Function in Postmenopausal Women With Osteopenia and Osteoporosis: The LIFTMOR Randomized Controlled Trial. J Bone Miner Res. 2018;33(2):211-220.
12. Hartley C, Folland JP, Kerslake R, et al. High impact exercise increased femoral neck bone density with no adverse effects on imaging markers of knee osteoarthritis in postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res. 2019 Sep 9. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.3867. [Epub ahead of print].
13. Abdi F, Alimoradi Z, Haqi P, et al. Effects of phytoestrogens on bone mineral density during the menopause transition: a systematic review of randomized, controlled trials. Climacteric. 2016;19(6):535-545.
14. Martín Salinas C, López-Sobaler AM. Benefits of soy in women's health. Nutr Hosp. 2017;34(Suppl 4):36-40.
15. Marini H, Minutoli L, Polito F, et al. Effects of the phytoestrogen genistein on bone metabolism in osteopenic postmenopausal women. Ann Intern Med. 2007;146:839-847.

Joint Health
1. Multanen J, Nieminen MT, Häkkinen A, et al. Effects of high-impact training on bone and articular cartilage: 12-month randomized controlled quantitative MRI study. J Bone Miner Res. 2014;29(1):192-201.
2. Ni GX. Development and Prevention of Running-Related Osteoarthritis. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2016;15(5):342-349.
3. Timmins KA, Leech RD, Batt ME, Edwards KL. Running and Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Am J Sports Med. 2017;45(6):1447-1457.
4. Running and Osteoarthritis: Does Recreational or Competitive Running Increase the Risk? J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2017;47(6):391.
5. Williams PT. Effects of running and walking on osteoarthritis and hip replacement risk. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013;45(7):1292–1297.
6. Lo GH, Driban JB, Kriska AM, et al. Is There an Association Between a History of Running and Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis? A Cross-Sectional Study From the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2017;69(2):183–191.
7. Gersing AS, Schwaiger BJ, Nevitt MC, et al. Is Weight Loss Associated with Less Progression of Changes in Knee Articular Cartilage among Obese and Overweight Patients as Assessed with MR Imaging over 48 Months? Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Radiology. 2017;284(2):508-520.
8. Sekome K, Maddocks S. The short-term effects of hydrotherapy on pain and self-perceived functional status in individuals living with osteoarthritis of the knee joint. S Afr J Physiother. 2019;75(1):476.
9. Vannini F, Spalding T, Andriolo L, et al. Sport and early osteoarthritis: the role of sport in aetiology, progression and treatment of knee osteoarthritis. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2016;24(6):1786-1796.
10. Alkatan M, Baker JR, Machin DR, et al. Improved Function and Reduced Pain after Swimming and Cycling Training in Patients with Osteoarthritis. J Rheumatol. 2016;43(3):666-672.
11. Knoop J, Steultjens MP, Roorda LD, et al. Improvement in upper leg muscle strength underlies beneficial effects of exercise therapy in knee osteoarthritis: secondary analysis from a randomised controlled trial. Physiotherapy. 2015;101(2):171-177.
12. Brakke R, Singh J, Sullivan W. Physical therapy in persons with osteoarthritis. PM R. 2012;4(5 Suppl):S53-58.
13. Mehl J, Diermeier T, Herbst E, et al. Evidence-based concepts for prevention of knee and ACL injuries. 2017 guidelines of the ligament committee of the German Knee Society (DKG). Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2018;138(1):51-61.
14. Lauche R, Schumann D, Sibbritt D, et al. Associations between yoga practice and joint problems: a cross-sectional survey among 9151 Australian women. Rheumatol Int. 2017;37(7):1145-1148.
15. Lauche R, Hunter DJ, Adams J, Cramer H. Yoga for Osteoarthritis: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2019;21(9):47.

Weight-Bearing Exercise and Bone Health
1. `Oftadeh R, Perez-Viloria M, Villa-Camacho JC, et al. Biomechanics and mechanobiology of trabecular bone: a review. J Biomech Eng. 2015;137(1):0108021–01080215. doi:10.1115/1.4029176
2. Maggio ABR, Martin X, Tabard-Fougère A, et al. Recovery of Bone Mineral Mass After Upper Limb Fractures in Children and Teenagers. J Pediatr Orthop. 2019;39(4):e248-e252. doi: 10.1097/BPO.0000000000001300.
3. Sibonga J, Matsumoto T, Jones J, et al. Resistive exercise in astronauts on prolonged spaceflights provides partial protection against spaceflight-induced bone loss. Bone. 2019;128:112037. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2019.07.013.
4. Mattazio RR, Noritomi PY, Silveira ZC. An in silico model for the prediction of changes in mineral density in cortical bone remodeling. J Biomech Eng. 2014. doi: 10.1115/1.4044094.
5. Lanyon LE. Osteocytes, strain detection, bone modeling and remodeling. Calcif Tissue Int. 1993;53 Suppl 1:S102-6; discussion S106-7.
6. Davison S, Chen L, Gray D, et al. Exercise-based correlates to calcaneal osteogenesis produced by a chronic training intervention. Bone. 2019;128:115049. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2019.115049.
7. Zhao R, Zhao M, Xu Z. The effects of differing resistance training modes on the preservation of bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: a meta-analysis. Osteoporos Int. 2015;26(5):1605-18. doi: 10.1007/s00198-015-3034-0.
8. Westcott WL. Resistance training is medicine: effects of strength training on health. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2012;11(4):209-16. doi: 10.1249/JSR.0b013e31825dabb8.
9. Price CT, Langford JR, Liporace FA. Essential Nutrients for Bone Health and a Review of their Availability in the Average North American Diet. Open Orthop J. 2012;6:143–149. doi:10.2174/1874325001206010143

Clementine Essential Oil
1. Sokovic A., et al. Antibacterial effects of the essential oils of commonly consumed medicinal herbs using an in vitro model. Mol. Basel Switz. 2010;15(11):7532-7546.
2. Ahmad S. and Beg Z. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities of thymoquinone and limonene in atherogenic suspension fed rats. Food Chem. 2013;138(2-3):1116-1124.
3. Zhang X., et al. Synergistic inhibitory effect of berberine and d-limonene on human gastric carcinoma cell line MGC803. J. Med. Food. 2014;17(9):955-962.
4. Crowell P., et al. Human metabolism of the experimental cancer therapeutic agent d-limonene. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. 1994;35(1):31-37.
5.Yun J. Limonene inhibits methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity via regulation of 5-HT neuronal function and dopamine release. Phytomedicine. 2014;21(6):883-887.
6. Hamada M., et al. Distribution and immune responses resulting from oral administration of D-limonene in rats. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. (Tokyo). 2002;48(2):155-160.
7. Jing L., et al. Preventive and ameliorating effects of citrus D-limonene on dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2013;715(1-3):46-55.
8. Ostan R., et al. Impact of diet and nutraceutical supplementation on inflammation in elderly people. Results from the RISTOMED study, an open-label randomized control trial. Clin. Nutr. Edinb. Scotl. 2015.
9. Chaiyana W. and Okonogi S. Inhibition of cholinesterase by essential oil from food plant. Phytomedicine Int. J. Phytother. Phytopharm. 2012;19(8-9):836-839.
10. Xie P., et al. Effect of toothpaste containing d-limonene on natural extrinsic smoking stain: a 4-week clinical trial. Am. J. Dent. 2010;23(4):196-200.
11. Subramenium G., Vijayakumar K., and Pandian S. Limonene inhibits streptococcal biofilm formation by targeting surface-associated virulence factors. J. Med. Microbiol. 2015;64(8):879-890.

Children's Eye Health
1. National Center for Health Statistics. Status and motility defects of persons 4-74 years. U.S. 1971-1972: statistics, Series 11, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1978.
2. Bronson GW. Changes in infants' visual scanning across the 2- to 14-week age
period. J Exp Child Psychol. 1990;49(1):101-125.
3. Bright Futures/American Academy of Pediatrics. Recommendations for Preventative Pediatric Health Care – Periodicity Schedule. www.aap.org/en-us/professional-resources/practice-support/Pages/PeriodicitySchedule.aspx (Access on June 17, 2019)
4. Bright Futures: Guidelines for Health Supervision of Infants, Children and Adolescents, 4th ed, Hagan JF, Shaw JS, Duncan PM (Eds), American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove Village, IL 2017.
5. Donahue SP, Nixon CN; Section on Opthamology, American Academy of Pediatrics;
Committee on Practice and Ambulatory Medicine, American Academy of Pediatrics;
American Academy of Ophthalmology; American Association for Pediatric
Ophthalmology and Strabismus; American Association of Certified Orthoptists.
Visual System Assessment in Infants, Children, and Young Adults by Pediatricians.
Pediatrics. 2016;137(1):28-30.
6. Ivanov IV, Mappes T, Schaupp P, Lappe C, Wahl S. Ultraviolet radiation oxidative stress affects eye health. J Biophotonics. 2018;11(7):e201700377. doi: 10.1002/jbio.201700377.
7. Deng Q, Wang Y, Wang C, Ji B, Cong R, Zhao L, Chen P, Zang X, Lu F, Han F, Huang F. Dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich oils protects against visible-light-induced retinal damage in vivo. Food Funct. 2018 25;9(4):2469-2479. doi: 10.1039/c7fo01168g.
8. Calder PC. Very long-chain n-3 fatty acids and human health: fact, fiction and the future. Proc Nutr Soc. 2018 Feb;77(1):52-72. doi: 10.1017/S0029665117003950.
9. Niu SL, Mitchell DC, Lim SY, Wen ZM, Kim HY, Salem N Jr, Litman BJ. Reduced G protein-coupled signaling efficiency in retinal rod outer segments in response to n-3 fatty acid deficiency. J Biol Chem. 2004;279(30):31098-31104.
10. Maharana PK, Nawaz S, Singhal D, Jhanji V, Agarwal T, Sharma N, Vajpayee RB. Causes and Management Outcomes of Acquired Corneal Opacity in a Preschool Age (0-5 Years) Group: A Hospital-Based Study. Cornea. 2019;38(7):868-872. doi: 10.1097/ICO.0000000000001962.

IQ Mega
1. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. Omega-3 Supplements: In Depth. 2012. Retrieved from: https://nccih.nih.gov/health/omega3/introduction.htm.
2. Innis S. Dietary omega 3 fatty acids and the developing brain. Brain Res. 2008;1237:35-43.
3. Lin P. and Su K. A meta-analytic review of double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of antidepressant efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids. J. Clin. Psychiatry.2007;68(7):2003s-2009s.
4. Stevens L., et al. EFA supplementation in children with inattention, hyperactivity, and other disruptive behaviors. Lipids. 2003;38(10):1007-1021.
5. Kulzow N, et al. Impact of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on memory function in healthy older adults. J Alzheimers Dis.2016;51(3):713-725.
6. Simopoulos A. An increase in the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio increases the risk for obesity. Nutrients. 2016;8(3):128.
7. Grosso G., et al. Omega-3 fatty acids and depression: Scientific evidence and biological mechanisms. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2014;2014:313570

Laurel Leaf

1. Matsubara E., et al. Volatiles emitted from the leaves of Laurus nobilis L. improve vigilance performance in visual discrimination task. Biomed. Res. Tokyo Jpn. 2011;32(1):19-28.
2. Sayyah M., et al. Analgesic and antiinflammatory activity of the leaf essential oil of Laurus nobilis Linn. Phytotherapy Research. 2003;17(7):733-736.
3. Chmit A., et al. Antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of polysaccharides, essential oil, and fatty oil extracted from Laurus nobilis growing in Lebanon. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Med. 2014;7S1:S546-552.
4. Rafiq R., et al. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of essential oils from Artemisia herba-alba Asso., Pelargonium capitatum × radens and Laurus nobilis L.. Foods.2016;94(6):1197-1204.
 

Which Foods Are Good for Skin?

1. Steevoorden D, et al. The use of endogenous antioxidants to improve photoprotection. J Photochem Photobiol B. 1997;41:1-10.
2. Thompson C. and Fuhrman M. Nutrients and wound healing: still searching for the magic bullet. Nutr Clin Pract. 2005;20(3):331-47.
3. Boelsma E, et al. Human skin condition and its associations with nutrient concentrations in serum and diet. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;77:348-355.
4. De Mel D. and Suphioglu C. Fishy business: effect of omega-3 fatty acids on zinc transporters and free zinc availability in human neuronal cells. Nutrients. 2014;6(8):3245-58.
5. Evans J. and Johnson E. The role of phytonutrients in skin health. Nutrients. 2010;2(8):903-928.
6. Stahl W. and Sies H. β-Carotene and other carotenoids in protection from sunlight. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96(5):1179S-84S.
7. Roberts R, Green J, and Lewis B. Lutein and zeaxanthin in eye and skin health. Clin Dermatol. 2009;27(2):195-201.
8. Sikdar S, Papadopoulou M, Dubois J. What do we know about sulforaphane protection against photoaging? J Cosmet Dermatol. 2016;15(1):72-7.
 

UV Damage and Sunscreen

1. Herrmann M, Farrell CL, Pusceddu I, Fabregat-cabello N, Cavalier E. Assessment of vitamin D status - a changing landscape. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2017;55(1):3-26.
2. https://www.who.int/uv/faq/uvhealtfac/en/index1.html
3. Guerra KC, Crane JS. Sunburn. [Updated 2018 Nov 23]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2019 Jan-.Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK534837/


Is the Sun Good or Bad for Your Skin?

1. Mostafa W. and Hegazy R. Vitamin D and the skin: Focus on a complex relationship: A review. J Adv Res. 2015 Nov; 6(6): 793–804.
2. Forrest K. and Stuhldreher W. Prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency in US adults. Nutr Res. 2011;31(1):48-54.
3. Chen Y. and Lyga J. Brain-skin connection: Stress, inflammation and skin aging. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets. 2014; 13(3): 177–190.
4. Mason r, et al. Photoprotection by 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and analogs: further studies on mechanisms and implications for UV-damage. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;121:164–168.
5. Gambart A, et al. Human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) gene is a direct target of the vitamin D receptor and is stronglyup-regulated in myeloid cells by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. FASEB J. 2005;19:1067–1077.


doTERRA DigestZen Digestive Blend

1. Asano T, et al. Anethole restores delayed gastric emptying and impaired gastric accommodation in rodents. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2016;472(1):125-130.
2. Miyagawa M, et al. Anxiolytic-like effect of Illicium verum fruit oil, trans-anethole and related compounds in mice. Phytotherapy Research. 2014;28(11):1710-1712.
3. Inamori M, et al. Early effects of peppermint oil on gastric emptying: a crossover study using a continuous real-time 13C breath test (BreathID system). Journal of Gastroenterology. 2007;42(7):539-542.
4. Cappelllo G, et al. Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial. Dig. Liver Dis. Off. J. Ital. Soc. Gastroenterol. Ital. Assoc. Study Liver.2007;39(6):530-536.
5. Rashidian A, et al. Protective effect of ginger volatile oil against acetic acid-induced colitis in rats: a light microscopic evaluation. Journal of Integrative Medicine. 2014;12(2):115-120.
6. Lua P. an Zakaria N. A Brief Review of Current Scientific Evidence Involving Aromatherapy Use for Nausea and Vomiting. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2012;18(6):534-540.
7. Thompson Coon J. and Ernst E. Systematic review: herbal medicinal products for non-ulcer dyspepsia. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2002;16(10):1689-1699.
8. Freires I, et al. Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils and Their Isolated Constituents against Cariogenic Bacteria: A Systematic Review. Molecules. 2015;20(4):7329-7358.
 

Improving Gut Health with Probiotic and Prebiotic Supplements

1. Helander HF, Fändriks L. Surface area of the digestive tract - revisited. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2014;49(6):681-689. doi:10.3109/00365521.2014.898326
2. Ley RE, Peterson DA, Gordon JI. Ecological and Evolutionary Forces Shaping Microbial Diversity in the Human Intestine. Cell. 2006;124(4):837-848. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.02.017
3. Gorbach SL. Microbiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract. In: Baron S, ed. Medical Microbiology. 4th ed. Galveston (TX): University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston; 1996. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK7670/. Accessed June 30, 2015.
4. Westfall S, Lomis N, Kahouli I, Dia SY, Singh SP, Prakash S. Microbiome, probiotics and neurodegenerative diseases: deciphering the gut brain axis. Cell Mol Life Sci CMLS. June 2017. doi:10.1007/s00018-017-2550-9
5. Evrensel A, Ceylan ME. The Gut-Brain Axis: The Missing Link in Depression. Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci. 2015;13(3):239-244. doi:10.9758/cpn.2015.13.3.239
6. Vighi G, Marcucci F, Sensi L, Di Cara G, Frati F. Allergy and the gastrointestinal system. Clin Exp Immunol. 2008;153 Suppl 1:3-6. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2249.2008.03713.x
 

Essential Beard Oil

1. Statista. Frequency of beard care product use among male consumers in the United States as of June 2017, by age group. Retrieved from: https://www.statista.com/statistics/723404/beard-care-frequency-men-use-us-age/.
2. Jin M, et al. Cedrol Enhances Extracellular Matrix Production in Dermal Fibroblasts in a MAPK -Dependent Manner. Annals of Dermatology. 2012;24(1):16.
3. Wang Y, et al. Antifungal modes of action of tea tree oil and its two characteristic components against Botrytis cinerea. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2015;119(5):1253-1262.
4. Loughlin R, et al. Comparison of the cidal activity of tea tree oil and terpinen-4-ol against clinical bacterial skin isolates and human fibroblast cells. Letters in Applied Microbiology. 2008;46(4):428-433.
5. Raman A, et al. Antimicrobial effects of tea-tree oil and its major components on Staphylococcus aureus, Staph. epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes. Letters in Applied Microbiology. 1995;21(4):242-245.
6. Depo Y, et al. Antibacterial activity on skin and chemical composition of the volatile oils from Agastache rugosa and Pogostemon cablin. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Za Zhi. 1997;18(4):1-4.


doTERRA Anti-Aging Eye Cream

1. Chaudhuri RK, Bojanowski K. Bakuchiol: a retinol-like functional compound revealed by gene expression profiling and clinically proven to have anti-aging effects. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2014;36(3):221-230. doi:10.1111/ics.12117
2. doTERRA International. (2017) An Eight Week Double Blind, Controlled Clinical Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of a Topical Product on Skin Condition. Internal doTERRA International report. Unpublished.
 

doTERRA Phytoestrogen Essential Complex

1. Chung H. Iodine and thyroid function. Ann Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2014; 19(1): 8–12.
2. Pike A, et al. Structure of the ligand-binding domain of oestrogen receptor beta in the presence of a partial agonist and a full antagonist. EMBO J. 1999;18(17):4608–4618,1999.
3. Marini H, et al. Effects of the phytoestrogen genistein on bone metabolism in osteopenic postmenopausal women: a randomized trial,” Ann. Intern. Med. 2007;146(12):839–847.
4. Brooks J, et al. Supplementation with flaxseed alters estrogen metabolism in postmenopausal women to a greater extent than does supplementation with an equal amount of soy. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2004;79(2):318–325.
5. Cozzi R, et al., Taurine and ellagic acid: two differently-acting natural antioxidants. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 1995;26(3):248–254.
 

doTERRA Bone Nutrient Essential Complex

1. Sozen T., Ozisik L, and Basaran N. An overview and management of osteoporosis. Eur J Rheumatol. 2017 Mar; 4(1): 46–56.
2. Bailey R. et al. Estimation of total usual calcium and vitamin D intakes in the United States. J Nutr. 2010;140(4):817-22.
3. Castiglioni S, et al. Magnesium and Osteoporosis: Current state of knowledge and future research directions. Nutrients. 2013; 5(8): 3022–3033.
4. Aghajanian A, et al. The roles and mechanisms of actions of vitamin C in bone: New developments. J Bone Miner Res. 2015 Nov;30(11):1945-55.
5. Holick M. and Chen T. Vitamin D deficiency: a worldwide problem with health consequences. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(4):1080S-6S.
6. Sahota O. Understanding vitamin D deficiency. Age Ageing. 2014; 43(5): 589–591.
7. International Osteoporosis Foundation. Osteoporosis facts and statistics. Retrieved from: https://www.iofbonehealth.org/facts-and-statistics/calcium-studies-map
 

Wild Orange Spotlight

1. Lehrner J, et al. Ambient odor of orange in a dental office reduces anxiety and improves mood in female patients. Physiol. Behav. 2000;71(1):83–86.
2. Goes T, et al. Effect of Sweet Orange Aroma on Experimental Anxiety in Humans. J. Altern. Complement. Med. 2012;18(8):798–804.
3. Xie P, et al. Effect of toothpaste containing d-limonene on natural extrinsic smoking stain: a 4-week clinical trial. Am. J. Dent. 2010;23(4).
4. Mansour S, et al. The comparison of the efficacy of citrus fragrance and fluoexetine in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Horion of Medical Sciences. 2004; 10(3): 43–48.
5. Yip Y. and Tam A. An experimental study on the effectiveness of massage with aromatic ginger and orange essential oil for moderate-to-severe knee pain among the elderly in Hong Kong. Complement. Ther. Med. 2008;16(3):131–138.
6. Jing L, et al. Preventive and ameliorating effects of citrus D-limonene on dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2013;715(1-3):46–55.
7. Singh P, et al. Chemical profile, antifungal, antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant activity of Citrus maxima Burm. and Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck essential oils and their cyclic monoterpene, D-Llimonene. Food Chem. Toxicol. Int. J. Publ. Br. Ind. Biol. Res. Assoc. 2010:48(6):1734–1740.
8. Patrick L.Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): a review of conventional and alternative treatments. Altern. Med. Rev. J. Clin. Ther. 2011;16(2):116–133.
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10. Park H, et al. Limonene, a natural cyclic terpene, is an agonistic ligand for adenosine A(2A) receptors,” Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2011;404(1):345–348.
11. Lai Y., et al. In vitro studies of a distillate of rectified essential oils on sinonasal components of mucociliary clearance. Am. J. Rhinol. Allergy. 2014;28(3):244–248, Jun. 2014.
 

Aromatherapy Massage with Geranium Essential Oil Reduces Pre-Menstrual Discomforts
Lotfipur-Rafsanjani SM, Ravari A, Ghorashi Z, Haji-Maghsoudi S, Akbarinasab J, Bekhradi R. Effects of Geranium Aromatherapy Massage on Premenstrual Syndrome: A  Clinical Trial. Int J Prev Med. 2018;9:98. doi: 10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_40_16.
 

Impact of Sitting on Lifespan
Diaz K, et al. Potential effects on mortality of replacing sedentary time with short sedentary bouts or physical activity: A national cohort study. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2018. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwy271.

Exercise and Mental Health
Chekroud S, et al. Association between physical exercise and mental health in 1·2 million individuals in the USA between 2011 and 2015: a cross-sectional study. Lancet Psychiatry. 2018;5(9):739-746.

High Intensity Exercise and your Liver
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2. Amah U, et al. Effect of short term aerobic exercise on liver function of Students College of Health Sciences and Technology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University,Nnewi Campus, Anambra State, Nigeria. Global Scientific Journals. 2017;5(7):67-77.
3. Chinedu I, et al. Effects of regular exercise on the liver function tests of male subjects in college of health sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi campus, Anambra state, Nigeria. International Journal of Current Research in Medical Sciences. 2018;4(3). doi:10.22192/ijcrms.2018.04.03.010.
4. Delicata N, Delicat J, and Delicata L. Strenuous exercise – an unusual cause of deranged liver enzymes. Case Reports in Clinical Medicine. 2018;7:177-181.
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Sugar-Sweetened Beverages (SSBs) and Metabolic Health

Choo V, et al. Food sources of fructose-containing sugars and glycaemic control: systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled intervention studies. BMJ. 2018;363:k4644


Bioavailability and the Lifelong Vitality Pack 

1. Centers for Disease Control. Second national report on biochemical indicators of diet and nutrition in the U.S. population 2012. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/nutritionreport/pdf/exesummary_web_032612.pdf.
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3. Yetley E. Multivitamin and multimineral dietary supplements: definitions, characterization, bioavailability, and drug interactions. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2007;85(1):269S-276S.
4. Xu Q, et al. Multivitamin use and telomere length in women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2009;89(6):1857-1863.
5. Ten Have G, et al. Absorption kinetics of amino acids, peptides, and intact proteins. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 2007;17: S23-S36


The Truth About Potatoes
1. Kubik M, et al. The association of the school food environment with dietary behaviors of young adolescents. American Journal of Public Health. 2003;93(7):1168-1173.
2. National Nutrition Surveillance Centre. Dietary habits of the Irish population: results from SLÁNAnnual Report 2003. Retrieved from: http://www.ucd.ie/issda/static/documentation/slan/diethab.pdf.
3. Mozaffarian D, et al. Changes in diet and lifestyle and long-term weight gain in women and men. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2011;364:2392-2404.
4. Pereira E., de Assis Costa J., and de Cassia Goncalves Alfenas R. Effect of glycemic index on obesity control. Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2015;59(3):245-251.
5. Veronese N, et al. Fried potato consumption is associated with elevated mortality: an 8-y longitudinal cohort study. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.2017;106(1):162-167.
6. PREDIMED Study and SUN Project Investigators. Potato consumption does not increase blood pressure or incident hypertension in 2 cohorts of Spanish adults. The Journal of Nutrition.2017;12(1):2272-2281.
7. Martinez-Puig D, et al. Long‐term effects on the digestive tract of feeding large amounts of resistant starch: A study in pigs. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2007;87(11):1991-1999.
8. Diaz-Toledo c, et al. Satiety impact of different potato products compared to pasta control. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 2016;35(6):537-543.
9. Rasmussen B, et al. An oral essential amino acid-carbohydrate supplement enhances muscle protein anabolism after resistance exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2000;88(2):386-392.
10. Aragon A. and Schoenfeld B. Nutrient timing revisited: is there a post-exercise anabolic window? Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2013;10(5). doi.org/10.1186/1550-2783-10-5.


Circadian Rhythms and Weight Management

1. Zitting KM, et al. Human resting energy expenditure varies with circadian phase. Current Biology. 2018. doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2018.10.005
2. Chtourou H. and Souissi N. The effect of training at a specific time of day: a review. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2012;26(7):1984-2005.
3. Hill D, et al. Temporal specificity in adaptations to high-intensity exercise training. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 1998;30(30:450-455.
 

Sleep Deprivation and Dehydration

1. Rosinger A, et al. Short sleep duration is associated with inadequate hydration: Cross-cultural evidence from US and Chinese adults. Sleep. 2018;zsy210. doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsy210
2. Trudel E. and Bourque C. Central clock excites vasopressin neurons by waking osmosensory afferents during late sleep. Nature Neuroscience. 2010;13(4):467-474.
3. Popkin B, et al. Water, hydration, and health. Nutrition Reviews. 2010;68(8):439-458.


Protein Before Bed

1. Bianco A, et al. Protein supplements consumption: a comparative study between the city centre and the suburbs of Palermo, Italy. BMC Sports Science, Medicine & Rehabilitation. 2014;6:29.
2. Mohanty D, et al. Milk derived bioactive peptides and their impact on human health – A review. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 2016;23(5):577-583.
3. Leyh S, et al. Pre-sleep protein in casein supplement or whole-food form has no impact on resting energy expenditure or hunger in women. British Journal of Nutrition. 2018;120(9):988-994.


Love on the Brain

1. Fisher HE. Lust, attraction, and attachment in mammalian reproduction. Hum Nat. 1998;9(1):23-52.
2. K. Takahashi et al., “Imaging the passionate stage of romantic love by dopamine dynamics,” Front. Hum. Neurosci., vol. 9, Apr. 2015.
3. “Love and the Brain | Department of Neurobiology.” [Online]. Available: http://neuro.hms.harvard.edu/harvard-mahoney-neuroscience-institute/brain-newsletter/and-brain-series/love-and-brain. [Accessed: 24-Jan-2019].
4. M. Leonti and L. Casu, “Ethnopharmacology of Love,” Front. Pharmacol., vol. 9, Jul. 2018.
 

Lifting is Good for the Heart

1. Sloan R, et al. The effect of aerobic training and cardiac autonomic regulation in young adults. American Journal of Public Health. 2009;99(5):921-928.
2. Lui Y, et al. Association of resistance exercise with cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2018. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000001822
 

Sleep for Your Heart's Sake!

Dominguez F, et al. Association of sleep duration and quality with subclinical atherosclerosis. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2019;73(2):134
 

Happiness and Physical Health 

1. Mahmood S, et al. The Framingham Heart Study and the epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases: A historical perspective. Lancet. 2014;383(9921):999-1008.
2. Raina P, et al. The Canadian longitudinal study on aging (CLSA). Canadian Journal of Aging. 2009;28(3):221-229.
3. Vaillant G. and Mukamal K. Successful Aging. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2001;158;839-847.
4. Waldinger R. and Schulz M. What’s love got to do with it?: Social functioning, perceived health, and daily happiness in married octogenarians. Psychology Aging. 2011;25(2):422-431.


Stressed Out? All You Need is Love!

Bourassa K, Ruiz J, Sbarra D. The impact of physical proximity and attachment working models on cardiovascular reactivity: Comparing mental activation and romantic partner presence. Psychophysiology. 2019; e13324. doi: 10.1111/psyp.13324.


Aerobic Fitness and Mortality Risk

1. Peteiro J, et al. Performance on exercise test predicts risk of death from cardiovascular disease and cancer. EuroEcho-Imaging 2018. Retrieved from: https://www.escardio.org/The-ESC/Press-Office/Press-releases/Performance-on-exercise-test-predicts-risk-of-death-from-cardiovascular-disease-and-cancer.
2. Shiroma E. and Lee IM. Physical activity and cardiovascular health: Lessons learned from epidemiological studies across age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Circulation.2010;122:743-752.
3. Campbell J. and Turner J. Debunking the myth of exercise-induced immune suppression: Redefining the impact of exercise on immunological health across the lifespan. Frontiers in Immunology. 2018;9:648.


Resolving for Success

1. DOMINICAN UNIVERSITY. Goals Research Summary. 2015. Retrieved from: http://www.dominican.edu/academics/ahss/undergraduate-programs/psych/faculty/assets-gail-matthews/researchsummary2.pdf
2. Lunenberg F. Goal-setting theory of motivation. International Journal of Management, Business, and Administration. 2011;15(1). Retrieved from: http://www.nationalforum.com/Electronic%20Journal%20Volumes/Lunenburg,%20Fred%20C.%20Goal-Setting%20Theoryof%20Motivation%20IJMBA%20V15%20N1%202011.pdf
3. Duckworth A. and Yeager D. Measurement matters: Assessing personal qualities other than cognitive ability for educational purposes. Educational Researcher. 2015;44(4):237-251.
4. Gagne’s differentiated model of giftedness and talent (DMGT). Journal for the Education of the Gifted. 1999. https://doi.org/10.1177/016235329902200209
5. Lally P, et al. How are habits formed: Modelling habit formation in the real world. European Journal of Social Psychology. 2009. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.674


Peppermint Oil and Athletic Performance

1. B. Raudenbush, B. Meyer, and B. Eppich, “The Effects of Odors on Objective and Subjective Measures of Athletic Performance,” Int. Sports J., vol. 6, no. 1, p. 14, 2002.
2. Lorig T. and Schwartz G. Brain and odor: Alternation of human EEG by odor administration. Psychobiology. 1988;16:281-284.
3. Meamarbashi A. and Rajabi A. The effects of peppermint on exercise performance. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2013;10:15.
4. Umezu T, Sakata A, Ito H. Ambulation-promoting effect of peppermint oil and identification of its active constituents. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2001;69: 383-339.
5. Zänker KS, Tölle W, Blümel G, Probst J. Evaluation of surfactant-like effects of commonly used remedies for colds. Respiration. 1980;39: 150-157.


Dietary Fluctuation and Cardiovascular Health

1.O’Connor L, et al. Short-term effects of healthy eating pattern cycling on cardiovascular disease risk factors: Pooled results from two randomized controlled trials. Nutrients. 2018;10(11):1725

2.Pavletic A, et al. Exercise-induced elevation of liver enzymes in a healthy female research volunteer. Psychosomatics.2015;56(5):604-606.

Grip Strength and Disease-Specific Mortality

1. Strand B, et al. The association of grip strength from midlife onwards with all-cause and cause-specific mortality over 17 years of follow-up in the Tromsø Study. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health. 2016. doi.org/10.1136/jech-2015-206776.
2. Celis-Morales C, et al. Associations of grip strength with cardiovascular, respiratory, and cancer outcomes and all cause mortality: prospective cohort study of half a million UK Biobank participants. BMJ. 2018;361:k1651.


Health Through the Holidays

1. Phelan S, Wing RR, Raynor HA, Dibello J, Nedeau K, Peng W. Holiday Weight Management by Successful Weight Losers and Normal Weight Individuals. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2008;76(3):442-448. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.76.3.442
2. Farias MM, Cuevas AM, Rodriguez F. Set-point theory and obesity. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2011;9(2):85-89. doi:10.1089/met.2010.0090


Sleep Deprivation and Weight Management

Cooper C, et al. Sleep deprivation and obesity in adults: a brief narrative review. BMJ Open, Sport & Exercise Medicine. 2018;4:e000392


Acetyl-L-Carnitine Deficiency and Mood

1. Marcovina SM, Sirtori C, Peracino A, et al. Translating the basic knowledge of mitochondrial functions to metabolic therapy: role of L-carnitine. Translational Research. 2013;161:73-84.
2. Traina G. The neurobiology of acetyl-L-carnitine. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2016;21:1314-29.
3. Carla Nasca, Benedetta Bigio, Francis S. Lee, Sarah P. Young, Marin M. Kautz, Ashly Albright, James Beasley, David S. Millington, Aleksander A. Mathé, James H. Kocsis, James W. Murrough, Bruce S. McEwen, Natalie Rasgon. Acetyl-l-carnitine deficiency in patients with major depressive disorder. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2018; 201801609 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1801609115


Childhood Obesity and Food Rewards

S. Adise, C. F. Geier, N. J. Roberts, C. N. White, and K. L. Keller, “Is brain response to food rewards related to overeating? A test of the reward surfeit model of overeating in children,” Appetite, vol. 128, pp. 167–179, Sep. 2018.


Essential Fatty Acids and Cognitive Function
1. K. S. Panickar and S. J. Bhathena, “Control of Fatty Acid Intake and the Role of Essential Fatty Acids in Cognitive Function and Neurological Disorders,” in Fat Detection: Taste, Texture, and Post Ingestive Effects, J.-P. Montmayeur and J. le Coutre, Eds. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, 2010.
2. M. Adjepong, W. Yakah, W. S. Harris, R. A. Annan, M. B. Pontifex, and J. I. Fenton, “Whole blood n-3 fatty acids are associated with executive function in 2–6-year-old Northern Ghanaian children,” J. Nutr. Biochem., vol. 57, pp. 287–293, Jul. 2018.
3. R. Uauy and A. D. Dangour, 2006 Nutrition in brain development and aging: role of essential fatty acids. Nutr. Rev. 64, S24–S33; discussion S72–S91.


The Benefits of Exercise May be Controlled by a Molecular "Switch"

1. Lessard S., et al. JNK regulates muscle remodeling via myostatin/SMAD inhibition. Nature Communications.2018;9(3030).
2. Lessard S., et al. Resistance to aerobic exercise training causes metabolic dysfunction and reveals novel exercise-regulated signaling networks. Diabetes. 2013;62: 2717–2727.
 

Long-Term Stimulant Use and Sleep

1. Mitchell D, et al. Beverage caffeine intake in the U.S. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2014;63:136-142.
2. Park J, et al. Lifetime coffee consumption, pineal gland volume, and sleep quality in late life. Sleep. 2018. doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsy127
3. Drake C, et al. Caffeine effects on sleep taken 0, 3, or 6 hours before going to bed. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. 2013;9(11):1195-1200.
 

Exercise Intensity and Chronic Disease

1. Gopinath B., Kifley A., Flood V., and Mitchell P. Physical Activity as a determinant of successful aging over ten years. Scientific Reports. 2018;8(1). DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-28526-3
2. Robinson M, et al. Enhanced protein translation underlies improved metabolic and physical adaptations to different exercise training modes in young and old humans. Cell Metabolism. 2017;25(3):581-592.

"Leaning" on Leptin

1. Leibel R, et al. Genetic variation and nutrition in obesity: approaches to the molecular genetics of obesity. World Rev Nutr Diet. 1990;63:90-101.
2. Tartaglia L, et al. Identification and expression cloning of a leptin receptor, OB-R. Cell. 1995;83(7):1263-1271.
3. Flier J, et al. Leptin’s physiologic role: Does the emperor of energy balance have no clothes? Cell Metabolism. 2017;26(1):24-26.
4. Bailey, L. Pharmacy Research Manufacturer’s Assoication (PHRMA): First Annual Health Survey. 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.phrma.org/press-release/new-survey-identifies-america-s-health-priorities-obesity-cancer-cures-senior-care

 
Chocolate Milk for Recovery

Amiri M, Ghiasvand R, Kaviani M, Forbes SC, Salehi-abargouei A. Chocolate milk for recovery from exercise: a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2018;


Exercise and Chronic Back Pain

1. Park TSW, Kuo A, Smith MT. Chronic low back pain: a mini-review on pharmacological management and pathophysiological insights from clinical and pre-clinical data. Inflammopharmacology. 2018;

2. Wewege M, Booth J, Parmenter B. Aerobic vs. resistance exercise for chronic non-specific low back pain: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil. 2018;


Benefits of Lifelong Exercise

Shibata S, Fujimoto N, Hastings JL, et al. The effect of lifelong exercise frequency on arterial stiffness. J Physiol. 0(0). doi:10.1113/JP275301


Healthy Lifestyle Habits

Li Y, et al. Impact of healthy lifestyle factors on life expectancies in the US population. Circulation. 2018. doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.117.032047


Healthy Food Choices Start in the Brain

Schmidt L, Tusche A, Manoharan N, Hutcherson C, Hare T, Plassmann H. Neuroanatomy of the vmPFC and dlPFC predicts individual differences in cognitive regulation during dietary self-control across regulation strategies. J Neurosci. June 2018:3402-3417. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3402-17.2018
 

Benefits of Yoga for Kids

  1. Amit K, Neelam S. Effect of yoga on academic performance in relation to stress. Int J Yoga. 2009 Jan-Jun; 2(1): 39–43.
  2. Bazzano AN, Anderson CE, Hylton C, et al. Effect of mindfulness and yoga on quality of life for elementary school students and teachers: results of a randomized controlled school-based study. Psychol Res Behav Manag. 2018 Apr 10; 11: 81-89.
  3. Butzer B, LoRusso AM, Windsor R, et al. A Qualitative Examination of Yoga for Middle School Adolescents. Adv Sch Ment Health Promot. 2017; 10(3):195-219.
  4. Sarkissian M, Trent NL, Huchting K, et al. Effects of a Kundalini Yoga Program on Elementary and Middle School Students' Stress, Affect, and Resilience. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2018 Apr; 39(3):210-216.
  5. Weaver LL, Darragh AR. Systematic Review of Yoga Interventions for Anxiety Reduction Among Children and Adolescents. Am J Occup Ther. 2015 Nov-Dec; 69(6):6906180070p1-9.
  6. Cohen SCL, Harvey DJ, Shields RH, et al. Effects of Yoga on Attention, Impulsivity, and Hyperactivity in Preschool-Aged Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2018 Apr; 39(3):200-209.

Vitamin D and Visceral Fat

  1. Dalgard C, et al. Vitamin D status in relation to glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes in septuagenarians. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(6):1284-1288.
  2. Rafiq R, et al. Associations of different body fat deposits with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations. Endocrine Abstracts. 2018;56. DOI: 10.1530/endoabs.56.OC6.5
  3. Forrest K. and Stuhldreher W. Prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency in US adults. Nutrition Research. 2011;31(1):48-54.

Exercise Impacts Labor Outcomes

Sanda B, Vistad I, Sagedal LR, Haakstad LAH, Lohne‐Seiler H, Torstveit MK. What is the effect of physical activity on duration and mode of delivery? Secondary analysis from the Norwegian Fit for Delivery trial. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 0(0). doi:10.1111/aogs.13351
 

Isometric Yoga to Reduce Fatigue

  1. Oka T, Tanahashi T, Sudo N, et al. Changes in fatigue, autonomic functions, and blood biomarkers due to sitting isometric yoga in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Biopsychosoc Med. 2018 Apr 10;12:3.
  2. Oka T, Wakita H, Kimura K. Development of a recumbent isometric yoga program for patients with severe chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: A pilot study to assess feasibility and efficacy. Biopsychosoc Med. 2017 Mar 3;11:5.
  3. Oka T, Tanahashi T, Chijiwa T, et al. Isometric yoga improves the fatigue and pain of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome who are resistant to conventional therapy: a randomized, controlled trial. Biopsychosoc Med. 2014 Dec 11;8(1):27.

Essential Oils Support the Cardiovascular System

de Andrade TU, Brasil GA, Endringer DC et al. Cardiovascular Activity of the Chemical Constituents of Essential Oils. Molecules. 2017 Sep 17;22(9). pii: E1539. doi: 10.3390/molecules22091539. 
 

Sleep and Sugar Intake

  1. Al Khatib H, et al. Sleep extension is a feasible lifestyle intervention in free-living adults who are habitually short sleepers: a potential strategy for decreasing intake of free sugars? A randomized controlled pilot study. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.2018;107(1):43-53.
  2. Greer S, Goldstein A, and Walker M. The impact of sleep deprivation on food desire in the human brain. Nature Communications. 2013;4. doi:10.1038/ncomms3259.

Zero-Calorie Sweeteners and Weight Management

  1. Kundu N, et al. Artificial sweetener such as sucralose may promote inflammation in human subcutaneous fat-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). ENDO. 2018; Abstract SUN-071.
  2. Hassan M. Low intake of aspartame induced weight gain and damage of brain & liver cells in weanling Syrian hamsters. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research. 2016; 4(3):152-156.
  3. de Matos Feijo F, et al. Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels. Appetite. 2013; 60(1):203-207.

Household Cleaning and Respiratory Health

  1. Quirce S, Barranco P. Cleaning agents and asthma. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2010;20(7):542-50.
  2. Svanes Ø, Bertelsen RJ, Lygre SH, et al. Cleaning at Home and at Work in Relation to Lung Function Decline and Airway Obstruction. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2018.
  3. Campana R, Casettari L, Fagioli L, Cespi M, Bonacucina G, Baffone W. Activity of essential oil-based microemulsions against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms developed on stainless steel surface in different culture media and growth conditions. Int J Food Microbiol. 2017;241:132-140.

Eggs and Health Myths

  1. Berge L, F A. How the Ideology of Low Fat Conquered America. J Hist Med Allied Sci. 2008;63(2):139-177. doi:10.1093/jhmas/jrn001
  2. Fuller NR, Sainsbury A, Caterson ID, et al. Effect of a high-egg diet on cardiometabolic risk factors in people with type 2 diabetes: the Diabetes and Egg (DIABEGG) Study—randomized weight-loss and follow-up phase. Am J Clin Nutr. doi:10.1093/ajcn/nqy048

Physical Fitness in Children

Birat A, Bourdier P, Piponnier E, Blazevich AJ, Maciejewski H, Duché P and Ratel S (2018) Metabolic and Fatigue Profiles Are Comparable Between Prepubertal Children and Well-Trained Adult Endurance Athletes. Front. Physiol. 9:387. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2018.00387
 

Smartphones and Mental Health

  1. Kouider, S., Long, B., Le Stanc, L., Charron, S., Fievet, A.-C., Barbosa, L. S., & Gelskov, S. V. (2015). Neural dynamics of prediction and surprise in infants. Nature Communications, 6, 8537. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms9537
  2. Roelofs, K. (2017). Freeze for action: Neurobiological mechanisms in animal and human freezing. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 372(1718), 20160206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098 /rstb.2016.0206
  3. Mikulic, M. (2016). The effects of push vs. pull notifications on overall smartphone usage, frequency of usage and stress levels (Dissertation). Retrieved from http://urn.kb.se /resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-297091
  4. Grinols, A. B. & Rajesh, R. (2014). Multitasking with smartphones in the college classroom. Business and Professional Communication Quarterly, 77(1), 89–95. http://dx.doi.org /10.1177/2329490613515300
  5. Peper, E., Harvey, R. (2018) Digital Addiction: Increased Loneliness, Anxiety, and Depression. NeuroRegulation. 2018;5(1):3.

Impact of Poor Air Quality

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  2. Jayaraj RL, Rodriguez EA, Wang Y, Block ML. Outdoor Ambient Air Pollution and Neurodegenerative Diseases: the Neuroinflammation Hypothesis. Curr Environ Health Rep. 2017;4(2):166-179. doi:10.1007/s40572-017-0142-3
  3. Ljubimova JY, Braubach O, Patil R, et al. Coarse particulate matter (PM 2.5–10 ) in Los Angeles Basin air induces expression of inflammation and cancer biomarkers in rat brains. Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):5708. doi:10.1038/s41598-018-23885-3

Living a Life of Health and Vitality

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  5. Simopoulos A. An increase in the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio increases the risk for obesity. Nutrients. 2016;8(3):128.
  6. Han X., Eggett D., and Parker T. Evaluation of the health benefits of a multivitamin, multimineral, herbal, essential oil-infused supplement: A pilot trial. Journal of Dietary Supplements. 2018;15(2). doi.org/10.1080/19390211.2017.1331943.
  7. Bird J, Ciappio E, and Murphy R. Adult full spectrum multivitamin/multimineral supplement users have a lower prevalence of vitamin and mineral deficiencies. The FASEB Journal. 2015;29(1).
  8. Dickinson A., MacKay D., and Wong A. Consumer attitudes about the role of multivitamins and other dietary supplements: report of a survey. Nutrition Journal. 2015;16:66.

Sleep Cycle and Life Expectancy

  1. Kristen L. Knutson & Malcolm von Schantz (2018) Associations between chronotype, morbidity and mortality in the UK Biobank cohort, Chronobiology International, DOI: 10.1080/07420528.2018.1454458
  2. Reutrakul S, Knutson KL. 2015. Consequences of circadian disruption on cardiometabolic health. Sleep Med Clin. 10:455–68. doi:10.1016/j.jsmc.2015.07.005.
  3. Yu JH, Yun CH, Ahn JH, Suh S, Cho HJ, Lee SK, Yoo HJ, Seo JA, Kim SG, Choi KM, et al. 2015. Evening chronotype is associated with metabolic disorders and body composition in middle-aged adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 100:1494–502. doi:10.1210/jc.2014-3754.
  4. Koopman ADM, Rauh SP, Van T, Riet E, Groeneveld L, Van Der Heijden AA, Elders PJ, Dekker JM, Nijpels GBeulens JW, et al. 2017. The association between social jetlag, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the general population: the new hoorn study. J Biol Rhythms. 32(4):359–368. doi:10.1080/748730417713572.
  5. Patterson F, Malone SK, Grandner MA, Lozano A, Perkett M, Hanlon A. 2017. Interactive effects of sleep duration and morning/evening preference on cardiovascular risk factors. Eur J Public Health.28(1):155–161.

Effects of Caloric Restriction on Overall Health

Ravussin E, et al. A 2-year randomized controlled trial of human caloric restriction: Feasibility and effects on predictors of health span and longevity. The Journals of Gerontology. 2015;9(1):1097-1104.


Eating Slowly

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  2. Ashizawa E , Katano S , Harada A , et al . Exploring the link between standard lifestyle questionnaires administered during specific medical check-ups and incidence of metabolic syndrome in Chiba Prefecture. Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi. 2014;61:176–85.
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  4. Totsuka K , Maeno T , Saito K , et al . Self-reported fast eating is a potent predictor of development of impaired glucose tolerance in Japanese men and women: Tsukuba Medical Center Study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2011;94:e72–4.doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2011.08.015.
  5. Otsuka R , Tamakoshi K , Yatsuya H , et al . Eating fast leads to insulin resistance: findings in middle-aged Japanese men and women. Prev Med.2008;46:154–9.doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2007.07.031.
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  7. Ochiai H , Shirasawa T , Ohtsu T , et al . The impact of eating quickly on anthropometric variables among schoolgirls: a prospective cohort study in Japan. Eur J Public Health. 2014;24:691–5.doi:10.1093/eurpub/ckt120

Cognitive Function and Yoga

  1. Luu K. and Hall P. Examining the acute effects of Hatha Yoga and mindfulness meditation on executive function and mood. Mindfulness. 2017;8:873-880.
  2. Brown R, et al. Sudarshan Kriya yogic breathing in the treatment of stress, anxiety, and depression. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2005;11(1):189-201
  3. Khalsa S. Yoga as a therapeutic intervention: A bibliometric analysis of published research studies. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 2004;48(3):269-285.
  4. Woodyard C. Exploring the therapeutic effects of yoga and its ability to increase quality of life. International Journal of Yoga. 2011;4(2):49-54.

You Can't Out-Train a Bad Diet

  1. The GBD Obesity Collaborators. Health effects of overweight and obesity in 195 countries over 25 years. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2017. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1614362
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Helping Teens Maintain Clear Skin

  1. Kapoor S, Saraf S. Topical herbal therapies an alternative and complementary choice to combat acne. Res J Med Plant. 2011;5(6):650-669.
  2. Bassett IM, Pannowitz DL, Barnetson RS. A comparitive study of tea-tree oil versus benzoylperoxide in the treatment of acne. Med J Aust. 1990; 153(8):455-458.
  3. Raman A, Weir U, Bloomfield SF. Antimicrobial effets of tea-tree oil and its major components on Staphylococcus aureus, Staph. epidermis, and Propionibacterium acnes. Lett Appl Microbiol. 1995; 21(4):242-245.
  4. Decker A, Graber EM. Over-the-counter Acne Treatments: A Review. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2012;5(5):32-40.
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Overeating and the Brain

  1. Zhang X. and van den Pol A. Rapid binge-like eating and body weight gain driven by zona incerta GABA neuron activation. Science. 2017;356(6340):853-859.
  2. Shen J, et al. Olfactory stimulation with scent of grapefruit oil affects autonomic nerves, lipolysis and appetite in rats. Neuroscience Letters. 2005;380(3):289-294.
  3. Shen J, et al. Mechanism of changes induced in plasma glycerol by scent stimulation with grapefruit and lavender essential oils. Neuroscience Letters. 2007;416:241-246.

What We Eat vs. How We Feel

Jacka F, et al. A randomised controlled trial of dietary improvement for adults with major depression (the ‘SMILES’ trial). BMC Medicine. 2017;15(23). DOI: 10.1186/s12916-017-0791-y
 

Bone Health and Exercise

  1. Layne J. and Nelson M. The effects of progressive resistance training on bone density: a review. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 1999; 31(1):25-30.
  2. Styner M, et al. Exercises decreases marrow adipose tissue through ß-oxidation in obese running mice. Journal of Bone Mineral Research. 2017. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.3159. 

Energy-Dense Food and Weight Gain
Tordoff M, Pearson J, Ellis H, Poole R. Does good-tasting food influence body weight? Physiology of Human Behavior. 2017;170:27-31.
 

Omega-3 Fatty Acids from Plants
Amjad Khan W, Chun-Mei H, Khan N, et al. Bioengineered Plants Can Be a Useful Source of Omega-3 Fatty Acids. Biomed Res Int. 2017:7348919. doi: 10.1155/2017/7348919
 

The Key to Strength May Not Be Your Muscles

  1. Morton R, et al. Neither load nor systemic hormones determine resistance training-mediated hypertrophy or strength gains in resistance-trained young men. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2016. DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00154.2016.
  2. Jenkins, N, et al. Greater Neural Adaptations following High- vs. Low-Load Resistance Training. Frontiers in Physiology. 2017. DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2017.00331

Skin Care Routine

  1. Irkin R, Korukluoglu M. Growth inhibition of pathogenic bacteria and some yeasts by selected essential oils and survival of L. monocytogenes and C. albicans in apple-carrot juice. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2009;6(3):387-394.
  2. Matiz G, Osorio MR, Camacho F, Atencia M, Herazo J. Effectiveness of antimicrobial formulations for acne based on orange (Citrus sinensis) and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L) essential oils. Biomedica. 2012;32(1):125-133.
  3. Hwang E, Ngo HTT, Park B et al. Myrcene, An Aromatic Volative Compound, Ameliorates Human Skin Extrinsic Aging via Regulation of MMPs Production. Am J Chin Med. 2017 Jun 28:1-12.
  4. Muthaiyan A, Martin EM, Natesan S, Crandall PG, Wilkinson BJ, Ricke SC. Antimicrobial Effect and Mode of Action of Terpeneless Cold Pressed Valencia Orange Essential Oil on Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2012; 112(5):1020-1033.
  5. Li H, Ge Y, Luo Z et al. Evaluation of the chemical composition, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activites of distillate and residue fractions of sweet basil essential oil. J Food Sci Technol. 2017 Jun;54(7):1882-1890.
  6. Dennen M, Lio P. Smoothing Out Our Understanding of Moisturizers. Practical Dermatology. 2017 Jun 14(6):68-72.
  7. Wei J, Zhang X, Bi Y, Miao R, Zhang Z, Su H. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Cumin Essential Oil by Blocking JNK, ERK and NF-kB signaling Pathways in LPS-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells. Evidence- Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2015.
  8. Van Vuuren SF, Suliman S, Viljoen AM. The antimicrobial activity of four commercial essential oils in combination with conventional antimicrobials. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2009;28(4):440-446.
  9. Enshaieh S, Jooya A, Siadat AH, Iraji F. The efficacy of 5% topical tea tree oil gel in mild to moderate acne vulgaris: a randomized, double blind placebo controlled study. Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology. 2007;73:22-25.
  10. Decker A, Graber EM. Over the counter Acne Treatments: A Review. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2012;5(5):32-40.
  11. Yang SA, Jeon SK, Lee EJ, et al. Comparative study of the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of six essential oils and their components. Nat Prod Res. 2010;24(2):140-151.
  12. Amorati R, Foti MC, Valgimigli L. Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils: a Critical Review. J Agric Food Chem. 2013;61(46):10835-10847.
  13. Kamal GM, Ashraf MY, Hussain Al, et al. Antioxidant Potential of Peel Essential Oils of Three Pakistani Citrus Species: Citrus reticulate, Citrus sinensis and Citrus paradisii. Pakistant Journal of Botany. 2013;45(4):1449-1454.

Gut Microbiome Health 

  1. Shreiner A, et al. The gut microbiome in health and in disease. Current Opinions in Gaastroenterology. 2015;31(1):69-75.
  2. Kumar M, et al. Human gut microbiota and healthy aging: Recent developments and future prospective. Nutrition and Healthy Aging. 2016;4(1):3-16.
  3. Mayer E, et al. Gut Microbes and the brain: Paradigm shift and neuroscience. The Journal of Neuroscience. 2014; 34(46):15490-15496.
  4. Clarke S, et al. The gut microbiota and its relationship to diet and obesity. Gut Microbes. 2012;3(3):186-202.
  5. Hjorth M, et al. Pre-treatment microbial Prevotella-to-Bacteroides ratio, determines body fat loss success during a 6-month randomized controlled diet intervention. International Journal of Obesity (London). 2017. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2017.220.
 

Ancestry and Your Health
Ye K, et al. Dietary adaptation of FADS genes in Europe varied across time and geography. Nature Ecology & Evolution. 2017. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/111229.
 
Cinnamon and Metabolism

  1. Brennemen M, Mahfouz T, and Stockert A. Cooperative binding of cinnamon polyphenols as activators of Sirtuin-1 protein in the insulin signaling pathway. The FASEB Journal. 2017;31(1):761.25.
  2. Hoehn A and Stockert A. The effects of Cinnamomum cassia on blood glucose values are greater than those of dietary changes alone. Nutrition and Metabolic Insights. 2012;5:77-83. 

Magnesium and Bone Health

  1. Chu, W. Magnesium may promote bone health and prevent fractures: Study. European Journal of Epidemiology. 2017. DOI: 10.1007/s10654-017-0242-2.
  2. Sojka, JE, Weaver CM. Magnesium supplementation and osteoporosis. PubMed. 1995; 53(3):71-4.

Gym Membership

  1. Statistic Brain. Gym membership statistics. 2016. Retrieved from: http://www.statisticbrain.com/gym-membership-statistics/.
  2. Schroeder E, et al. Associations of Health Club Membership with physical activity and cardiovascular health. PLOS ONE. 2017;12(1): e0170471.

Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Obesity
Simopoulos A. An increase in the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio increases the risk for obesity. Nutrients. 2016;8(128). doi:10.3390/nu8030128

Morning Workout Appetite Cues
Hanlon B, Larson M, Bailey B, LeCheminant J. Neural response to pictures of food after exercise in normal-weight and obese women. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2012;44(10):1864-1870.


Smart, but Risky, Phones

Rebold M, et al. The impact of different cell phone functions and their effects on postural stability. Performance Enhancement & Health. 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.peh.2016.11.004.

Overeating "Healthy" Foods
Faulkner G, et al. Perceived 'healthiness' of foods can influence consumers' estimations of energy density and appropriate portion size. International Journal of Obesity. 2014;38(1):106-112.

Eating Out, Eating More

  1. Jamrisko M. Americans spend more on dining out than groceries for first time ever. Bloomberg. April 14, 2015. Retrieved from: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-04-14/americans-spending-on-dining-out-just-overtook-grocery-sales-for-the-first-time-ever
  2. Nguyen B, Powell L. The impact of restaurant consumption among U.S. adults: effects on energy and nutrient intakes. Public Health Nutrition. 2014; 17(11):2445-2452.

Filling Up with H2O
Parretti H, et al. Efficacy of water preloading before main meals as a strategy for weight loss in primary care patients with obesity: RCT. Obesity. 2015; 23(9):1785-1791.

Impulsivity and BMI
Filbey F, Yezhuvath U. A multimodal study of impulsivity and body weight: Integrating behavioral, cognitive, and neuroimaging approaches. Obesity. 2017;25(1):147-154.

Eat the Rainbow
Otto M, Padhye N, Bertoni A, Jacobs D, Mozaffarian D. Everything in moderation – Dietary diversity and quality, central obesity and risk of diabetes. PLOS ONE. 2015. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141341.

High Sugar Diet & Lifespan

  1. Dobson A, et al. Nutritional programming of lifespan by FOXO inhibition on sugar diets. Cell Reports. 2017;18:299-306
  2. Wilcox B, et al. FOXO3A genotype is strongly associated with human longevity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2008;106(8): 2700–5. 

Sugary Sickness
Sanguesa G, et al. Type of supplemented simple sugar, not merely calorie intake, determines adverse effects on metabolism and aortic function in female rats. American Journal of Physiology – Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 2016. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00339.2016.

Waking up with Light
Cheung I, et al. Morning and evening blue-enriched light exposure alters metabolic function in normal weight adults. PLOS ONE. 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0155601.

Exercise Is Not a Cure-All
Brown R. et al. Secular differences in the association between caloric intake, macronutrient intake, and physical activity with obesity. Obesity Research & Clinical Practice. 2015. DOI: 10.1016/j.orcp.2015.08.007. 

Sleep Patterns and Homeostatic Hunger Mechanisms

  1. Lundahl A, Nelson T. Sleep and food intake: A multisystem review of mechanisms in children and adults. Journal of Health Psychology. 2015;20(6):794-805.
  2. Schussler P, et al. Peptide hormones regulating appetite—focus on neuroimaging studies in humans. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews. 2006;27(2):104-112.

Support vs. Competition

  1. Foster D, Linehan C, Kirman S, Lawson G, James G. Motivating physical activity at work: using persuasive social media for competitive step counting. ACM. 2010: 111-16.
  2. Zhang J, et al. Support or competition? How online social networks increase physical activity: A randomized controlled trial. Preventive Medicine Reports. 2016;4:453-458.

Nutrient-Dense Foods and Lifespan

  1. Lee C, Longbo V. Dietary restriction with and without caloric restriction for healthy aging. F100 Research. 2016. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.7136.1.
  2. Mattison J, et al. Caloric restriction improves health and survival of rhesus monkeys. Nature Communications. 2017. doi:10.1038/ncomms14063.

Building Muscle in Old Age
Walker S, Hakkinen K. Similar increases in strength after short-term resistance training due to different neuromuscular adaptations in young and older men. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2014; 28(11):3041-3048.

Mindful Meditation
Hoge E, et al. The effect of mindfulness meditation training on biological acute stress responses in generalized anxiety disorder. Psychiatry Research. 2017. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2017.01.006.

Don't Forget to Eat Your Quercetin and Galangin

  1. Liu X, et al. Dietary total flavonoids intake and risk of mortality from all causes and cardiovascular disease in the general population: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. DOI: 10.1002/mnfr.201601003.
  2. Liu y, et al., Dietary flavonoids intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Clinical Nutrition. 2014; 33:59-63.
  3. Gharib H, et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, American College of Endocrinology, and Associazione Medici Endocrinologi Medical Guidelines for Clinical Practice for the Diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Nodules - 2016 Update. Endocrine Practice. 2016: 22:622-639.

Music and Exercise

  1. Hasan M, Bakhtiyar T, Azhdar A. The effects of music on the perceived exertion rate and performance of trained and untrained individuals during progressive exercise. Facta universitatis - series: Physical Education and Sport. 2008; 6(1):67-74.
  2. Kapingst A, et al. Effect of music components on exercise. Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation. 2010;30:272.
  3. Prieboy M. Effects of auditory input on perceived exertion during cycling. Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation. 2009; 29(4);262-274.
  4. Atan T. Effect of music on anaerobic exercise performance. Biology of Sport.2013; 30(1):35-39.

Exercise and Biological Aging
Shadyab A, et al. Associations of accelerometer – measured and self-reported sedentary time with leukocyte telomere length in older women. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2017: 172-184. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kww196.
 
The Dangers of Yo-Yo Dieting
Rasla, S. Yo-yo dieting dangerous even if not overweight. American Heart Association Scientific Sessions. 2016. Retrieved from: http://news.heart.org/scientific-sessions-2016-summary/.

Exercise and Laughter

Greene C, Morgan J, Traywick L, Mingo C. Evaluation of a laughter-based exercise on health and self-efficacy for exercise. The Gerontologist. 2016. DOI: 10.1093/geront/gnw105.

Exercise May Keep Your Brain Young 
Zhu, W, et al. Objectively measured physical activity and cognitive function in older adults. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2017;49(1):47-53.

Weighing in on Health
Matheson E, King D, Everett C. Healthy lifestyle habits and mortality in overweight and obese individuals. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine. 2012; 25(1):9-15.

Core Strength 101

  1. Martuscello J, Nuzzo J, Ashley C, Campbell B, Orriola J, Mayer J. Systematic review of core muscle activity during physical fitness exercises. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2013; 27(6):1684-1698.
  2. Escamilla R. et al. Core muscle activation during swiss ball and traditional abdominal exercises. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 2010;40:265-276.
  3. Schoenfeld B, Contreras B, Tiryaki-Sonmez R, Fontana F. An electromyographic comparison of a modified version of the plank with a long lever and posterior tilt versus the traditional plank exercise. Sports Biomechanics. 2014;13(3):296-306.
  4. Calatayud J, et al. Muscle activation during push-ups with different suspension training systems. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine. 2014; 13(3):502-510.
  5. Youdas J, et al. Comparison of muscle-activation patterns during the conventional push-up and perfect pushup™ exercises. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2010;24:3352-3362. 

Exhaling Fat

  1. Meerman R, Brown A. When somebody loses weight, where does the fat go? BMJ. 2014; 349:g7257.
  2. Ainsworth B, et al. Compendium of physical activities: a second update of codes and MET values. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43:1575-81.

Dieting May Improve Mood and Overall Quality of Life
Marti C, Bhapkar M, Pittas A. Effect of calorie restriction on mood, quality of life, and sexual function in healthy nonobese adults. JAMA Intern Med. 2016; 176(6):743-752 

Slim by Design: Designing a Healthy Food Environment
Wansink B, Hanks A, Kaipainen K. Slim by design: Kitchen counter correlates of obesity. Health Education Behavior. 2016; 43(5):552-558. 

The Hormone Leptin and Weight Loss

  1. Maffei M. Leptin levels in human and rodent: Measurement of plasma leptin and ob RNA in obese and weight-reduced subjects. Nature Medicine. 1995; 1:1155-1161.
  2. Woods s. The control of food intake: Behavioral versus molecular perspectives. Cellular Metabolism. 2009; 9(6): 489-498.
  3. Jung C, Kim M. Molecular mechanism of central leptin resistance in obesity. Arch Pharm Res. 2013; 36(2):201-207.
  4. Wing R, Sinha M, Considine R, Lang W, Caro J. Relationship between weight loss maintenance and changes in serum leptin levels. Horm Metab Res. 1996; 28(12): 698-703.
  5. Chu N, Stampfer M, Spiegelman D, Rifai N, Hotamisligil G, Rimm E. Dietary and lifestyle factors in relation to plasma leptin concentrations among normal weight and overweight men. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001; 25(1): 106-114. 

Dieting and Weight Gain
Lowe M, Doshi S, Katterman S, Feig M. Dieting and restrained eating as prospective predictors of weight gain. Frontiers in Psychology. 2013;4:577.

Cross-Training and Carbohydrate Intake
Escobar K, Morales J, Vandusseldorp T. The effect of a moderately low and high carbohydrate intake on crossfit performance. International Journal of Exercise Science. 2016;9(3):460-470. 

Health Impacts of Work Commuting
Hoehner C, Barlow C, Allen P, Schootman M. Commuting distance, cardiorespiratory fitness, and metabolic risk. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2013; 42(6):571-578.

Exercising for Pleasure

Zenko Z, Ekkekakis P, Ariely D. Can you have vigorous exercise and enjoy it too? Ramping intensity down increases postexercise, remembered, and forecasted pleasure. Journal of Sport & Exercise Physiology. 2016;38(2):149-159.

Breakfast

  1. Mayyasi A. How breakfast became a thing. Priceonomics. May 9, 2016. Retrieved from https://priceonomics.com/how-breakfast-became-a-thing
  2. Dhurandhar E, et al. The effectiveness of breakfast recommendations on weight loss: a randomized controlled trial. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2014;104(4). doi: 10.3945/ajcn.114.089573.
  3. Levitsky D, Pacanowski C. Effect of skipping breakfast on subsequent energy intake. Physiology & Behavior. 2013;119;9-16.
  4. Betts J, Richardson J, Chowdhury E, Holman G, Tsintzas K, Thompson D. The causal role of breakfast in energy balance and health: a randomized controlled trial in lean adults. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2014. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.114.083402.

Sleep Deprivation and Junk Food
Greer S, Goldstein A, Walker M. The impact of sleep deprivation on food desire in the human brain. Nature Communications. 2013; 4:2259. doi:10.1038/ncomms3259

Planning for Weight Management Success 

  1. Swinburn B, Egger G, Raza F. Dissecting obesogenic environments: the development and application of a framework for identifying and prioritizing environmental interventions for obesity. Prev Med. 1999;29:563–70.
  2. Louzada M, et al. Consumption of ultra-processed foods and obesity in Brazilian adolescents and adults. Prev Med. 2015;81:9-15.
  3. Fruh S, et al. Meal-planning practices with individuals in health disparity zip codes. J Nurse Pract. 2013;9(6):344-349.
  4. Hollis J, et al. Weight loss during the intensive intervention phase of weight-loss maintenance trial. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2008;35(2):118-126.
  5. Deliens T, Clarys P, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Deforche B. Determinants of eating behaviour in university students: a qualitative study using focus group discussions. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:53.
  6. Sumithran P. Long-term persistence of hormonal adaptations to weight loss. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2011;365:1597-1604.
  7. King A, et al. Behavoral impacts of sequentially versus simultaneously delivered dietary plus physical activity interventions: The CALM Trial. Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 2013; 46(2):157-168.

Sleep: Lavender & L-Theanine 

  1. Chong Y, Fryar C, Gu Q. Prescription sleep aid use among adults: United States, 2005-2010. NCHS Data Brief. August 2013; 127. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db127.pdf
  2. Afshar M, et al. Lavender fragrance essential oil and the quality of sleep in postpartum women. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2015; 17(4):e25880.
  3. Lee S. Effects of aroma inhalation on fatigue and sleep quality of postpartum mothers. Women Heath Nurs. 2004; 10(3):235-243.
  4. Hirokawa K, Nishimoto T, Taniguchi T. The effects of lavender aroma on sleep quality in healthy Japanese students. Percept Mot Skills. 2012; 114(1):111-122.
  5. Field T, et al. Lavender bath oil reduces stress and crying and enhances sleep in very young infants. Early Human Development. 2008; 84(6):339-401.
  6. Smith A, Halcon L, Savik K, Reis R. Effect of lavender and sleep hygiene on self-reported sleep issues: A randomized controlled trial. J Am Coll Nutri. 2015; 34(5):436-47.
  7. Schuwald A, Noldner M, Wilmes T, Klugbauer N, Leuner K, Muller W. Lavender oil-potent anxiolytic properties via modulation voltage dependent calcium channels. PLoS One. 2013; 8(4):e59998.
  8. Dimpfel W, Pischel I, Lehnfeld R. Effects of lozenge containing lavender oil, extracts from hops, lemon balm and oat on electrical brain activity in volunteers. Eur. J. Med. Res. 2004; 9(9):423-431.
  9. Ghelardini C, Galeotti N, Salvatore G, Mazzanti G. Local anasthetic activity of the essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia. Planta Med.1999; 65(8):700-703.
  10. Barrett J, Tracy D, Giaroli G. To sleep or not to sleep: a systematic review of the literature of pharmacological treatments of insomnia in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2013; 23(10):640-7.
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  13. Yokogoshi H, Kobayashi M, Mochizuki M, Terashima T. Effects of theanine, r-glutamylethylamide, on brain monoamines and striatal dopamine release in conscious rats. Neurochem Res. 1998; 23(5):667-73.

Exercise and Stress Resilience

  1. Dum R, Levinthal D, Strick P. Motor, cognitive, and affective areas of the cerebral cortex influence the adrenal medulla. PNAS. 2016; 113(35):9922-9927.
  2. Hamblin J. Why one neuroscientist started blasting his core. The Atlantic. 2016. Accessed September 18, 2016.
  3. Childs E, de Wit H. Regular exercise is associated with emotional resilience to acute stress in healthy adults. Front Physiol. 2014; 5:161.
  4. Nakamura A, Fujiwara S, Matsumoto I, et al. Stress repression in restrained rats by (R)-(-)-linalool inhalation and gene expression profiling of their whole blood cells. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2009; 57(12):5480-5485.
  5. American Heart Association recommendations for physical activity in adults. American Heart Association. Accessed September 18, 2016.

Too Much of a Good Thing? When "Healthy" Nutritional Habits Backfire
Du Toit G, Roberts G, Sayre PH, et al. Randomized Trial of Peanut Consumption in Infants at Risk for Peanut Allergy. N Engl J Med.2015:803-813. 

Expanding Lifespan
Ristow M, Schmeisser S. Extending life span by increasing oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011; 51(2):327-336.

The Importance of Core Strength in Aging
Granacher U, Golhofer A, et al. The importance of trunk muscle strength for balance, functional performance, and fall prevention in seniors: a systematic review. Sports Med. 2013; 43(7):627-41.

Prenatal Cravings
Orloff N & Hormes J. Pickles and ice cream! Food cravings in pregnancy: hypothesis, preliminary evidence, and directions for future research. Front Psych. 2014; 5(1076):1-39.

Green Exercise

  1. Gladwell V, Brown D, Wood C, Sandercock G, Barton J. The great outdoors: how a green exercise environment can benefit all. Extrem Physiol Med. 2013; 2:3.
  2. Bowler D, Buyung-Ali L, Knight T, Pullin A. A systematic review of evidence for the added benefits to health of exposure to natural environments. BMC Publ Health. 2010; 10:456.
  3. Pretty J, Peacock J, Sellens M, Griffin M. The mental and physical outcomes of green exercise. Int J Environ Health Res. 2005; 15(5):319-337.
  4. Moyer A, Rodin J, Grilo C, Cummings N, Larson L, Rebuffé-Scrive M. Stress-induces cortisol response and fat distribution in women. Obesity Res. 1994; 2(3);255-262.
  5. Thompson Coon J, Boddy K, Stein K, Whear R, Barton J, Depledge MH. Does participating in physical activity in outdoor natural environments have a greater effect on physical and mental wellbeing than physical activity indoors? A systematic review. Environ Sci Tech. 2011; 45(5): 1761-1772. 

Junk Food and Bloog Sugar Regulation

  1. Boyle JP, Thompson TJ, Gregg EW, Barker LE, Williamson DF. Projection of the year 2050 burden of diabetes in the US adult population: dynamic modeling of incidence, mortality, and prediabetes prevalance. Popul Health Metr. 2010; 8:29.
  2. Chichger H, Cleasby ME, Srai SK, Unwin RJ, Debnam ES, Marks J. Experimental type II diabetes and related models of impaired glucouse metabolism differentially regulate glucose transporters at the proximal tubule brush border membrane. Exp Physiol. 2016;101(6):731-742.

Sugary Drinks and Diabetes
Imamura F, O'Connor L, Ye Z, et al. Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice and incidence of type 2 diabetes: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimation of population attributable fraction. Br J Sports Med. 2016; 50(8); 496-504.

Women and Resistance Training

  1. Schmitz K, et al. Strength training and adiposity in premenopausal women: Strong, Healthy, and Empowered study. American Society for Clinical Nutrition. 2007; 86(3): 566-572.
  2. Mayer F, et al. The intensity and effects of strength training in the elderly. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2011; 108(21): 359-364.
  3. Melov S, Tarnopolsky MA, Beckman K, Felkey K, and Hubbard A. Resistance Exercise Reverses Aging in Human Skeletal Muscle. PLoS One. 2007; 2(5): e465.
  4. Kadi F. The effects of regular strength training on telomere length in human skeletal muscle. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2008; 40(1): 82-7.
  5. O'Connor P, Herring M, and Carvalho A. Mental health benefits of strength training in adults. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine. 2010; 4(5): 377-396.
  6. Anderson-Hanley C, Nimon J, and Westen S. Cognitive health benefits of strengthening exercise for community-dwelling older adults. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology. 2010; 32(9): 996-1001.
  7. van Prag H. Exercise and the brain; something to chew on. Trends in Neuroscience. 2009; 32(5): 283-290.

Sarcopenia: Anti-Aging Benefits of Strength Training

  1. Forbes G, Reina J. Adult lean body mass declines with age: some longitudinal observations. Metabolism. 1970; 19(9): 653-663.
  2. Mayer F, et al. The intensity and effects of strength training in the elderly. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2011; 108(21): 359-364.
  3. Melov S., Tarnopolsky M.A., Beckman K., Felkey K., and Hubbard A. Resistance Exercise Reverses Aging in Human Skeletal Muscle. PLoS ONE. 2007; 2(5): e465.
  4. Kadi F. The effects of regular strength training on telomere length in human skeletal muscle. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2008; 40(1): 82-7.
  5. Bolandzadeh N, et al. Resistance training and white matter lesion progression in older woman: Exploratory analysis of a 12-month randomized co ntrolled trial. Journal of the American Geriatric Society. 2015; 63(10): 2052-2060.
  6. Weinberg L, Hasni A, Duarte A. A single bout of resistance exercise can enhance episodic memory performance. Acta Psychologica. 2014; 153: 13-19. 

Working out Your Mental Muscles
O'Connor P, Herring M, and Carvalho A. Mental health benefits of strength training in adults. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine. 2010: 4(5): 377-396.

Running Barefoot
Alloway R, Alloway T, Magyari P, Floyd S. An exploratory study investigating the effects of barefoot running on working memory. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 2016: 122(2): 432.

Short Bursts of High-Intensity Exercise for Cardiovascular Health
Gillen JB, Martin BJ, MacInnis MJ, Skelly LE, Tarnopolsky MA, Gibala MJ. Twelve Weeks of Sprint Interval Training Improves Indices of Cardiometabolic Health Similar to Traditional Endurance Training despite a Five-Fold Lower Exercise Volume and Time Commitment. PLoS One. 2016; 11(4):e0154075.

Fructose and Omega-3s
Meng Q, Ying Z, Noble E, et al. Systems Nutrigenomics Reveals Brain Gene Networks Linking Metabolic and Brain Disorders. EBioMedicine. 2016.

The Unity of Yoga and Essential Oils

  1. Michalsen A, Grossman P, Acil A, et al. Rapid stress reduction and anxiolysis among distressed women as a consequence of a three month intensive yoga program. Med Sci Monit. 2005; 11:555-61.
  2. West J, Otte C, Geher K, et al. Effects of Hatha yoga and African dance on perceived stress, affect, and salivary cortisol. Ann Behav Med. 2004; 28:114-8.
  3. Pilkington K, Kirkwood G, Rampes H, et al. Yoga for Depression: The Research Evidence. J Affect Disord. 2005; 89:13-24.
  4. Selvamurthy W, Sridharan K, Ray US, et al. A new physiological approach to control essential hypertension. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1998; 42:205-13.
  5. McCaffrey R, Ruknui P, Hatthakit U, et al. The effects of yoga on hypertensive persons in Thailand. Holist Nurs Pract. 2005; 19:173-80.
  6. Desai R, Tailor A, Bhatt T. Effects of yoga on brain waves and structural activation: A review. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2015 May; 21(2):112-118.
  7. Chioca LR, Ferro MM, Baretta IP, et al. Anxiolytic-like effect of lavender essential oil inhalation in mice: Participation by not GABA/benzodiazepine neurotransmission. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013; 147(2):412-218.
  8. Lehrner J, Eckersberger C, Walla P, et al. Ambient odor of orange in a dental office reduces anxiety and improves mood in female patients. Physiology & Behavior. 2000; 71:83-86.
  9. Cho MY, Min ES, Hur MH, et al. Effects of aromatherapy on the anxiety, vital signs, and sleep quality of percutaneous coronary intervention patients in intensive care units. Evid Bsed Complement Alternat Med. 2013; 381.
  10. Setzer WN. Essential oils and anxiolytic aromatherapy. Nat Prod Commun. 2009; 4(9):1305-1316.
  11. Diego MA, Jones NA, Field T, et al. Aromatherapy positively affects mood, EEG patterns of alertness and math computations. Int J Neurosci. 1998; 96(3-4):217-224.
  12. Moss M, Hewitt S, Moss L, et al. Modulation of cognitive performance and mood by aromas of peppermint and ylang-ylang. Int J Neurosci. 2008; 118(1):59-77.
  13. Juergens UR. Anti-inflammatory properties of the monoterpene 1,8-cineole: Current Evidence for co-medication in inflammatory airway diseases. Drus Res (Stuttg). 2014.  

The Science of Satiety

  1. Rolls BJ, Roe LS. Effect of the volume of liquid food infused intragastrically on satiety in women. Physiol Behav. 2002;76(4-5):623-631.
  2. Stenblom E-L, Montelius C, Erlandsson D, et al. Decreased Urge for Palatable Food after a Two-month Dietary Intervention with Green-plant Membranes in Overweight Women. Obes Weight Loss Ther. 2014;4(4).
  3. Duraffourd C, De Vadder F, Goncalves D, et al. Mu-opioid receptors and dietary protein stimulate a gut-brain neural circuitry limiting food intake. Cell. 2012;150(2):377-388.
  4. Van Wymelbeke V, Louis-Sylvestre J, Fantino M. Substrate oxidation and control of food intake in men after a fat-substitute meal compared with meals supplemented with an isoenergetic load of carbohydrate, long-chain triacylglycerols, or medium-chain triacylglycerols. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;74(5):620-630.
  5. Levitsky DA, Pacanowski CR. Effect of skipping breakfast on subsequent energy intake. Physiol Behav. 2013;119:9-16.
  6. Schoenfeld BJ, Aragon AA, Krieger JW. Effects of meal frequency on weight loss and body composition: a meta-analysis. Nutr Rev.2015;73(2):69-82. 

Microplex MVp™ Meets, Not Exceeds, Recommended Dietary Intakes

  1. Yetley EA. Multivitamin and multimineral dietary supplements: definitions, characterization, bioavailability, and drug interactions. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85(1):269S - 276.
  2. Gregory J. Case study: Folate bioavailability. J Nutr. 2001;131:1376S - 1382S.

 

 Science For Kids

 

 STEM Education

  1. Lessard S., et al. JNK regulates muscle remodeling via myostatin/SMAD inhibition. Nature Communications.2018;9(3030).
  2. Lessard S., et al. Resistance to aerobic exercise training causes metabolic dysfunction and reveals novel exercise-regulated signaling networks. Diabetes. 2013;62: 2717–2727.

Some of the studies in this bibliography could be considered improper product claims if not shared properly. Instead of sharing the individual studies in this bibliography, doTERRA Wellness Advocates should share the blog posts referring to these studies.


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