Bibliography


Research News

 
 
doTERRA Anchor Chemistry

  1. S. Dayawansa, K. Umeno, H. Takakura, E. Hori, E. Tabuchi, Y. Nagashima, H. Oosu, Y. Yada, T. Suzuki, T. Ono, and H. Nishijo, “Autonomic responses during inhalation of natural fragrance of ‘Cedrol’ in humans,” Auton. Neurosci., vol. 108, no. 1–2, pp. 79–86, Oct. 2003.
  2. Y. Yada, H. Sadachi, Y. Nagashima, and T. Suzuki, “Overseas survey of the effect of cedrol on the 
autonomic nervous system in three countries,” J. Physiol. Anthropol., vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 349–354, 
2007. 

  3. Milanos S, Elsharif SA, Janzen D et al. Metabolic Products of Linalool and Modulation of GABAA receptors. Front Chem. 2017 Jun 21;5:46. doi: 10.3389/fchem.2017.00046. eCollection 2017.
  4. D. Nord and J. Belew, “Effectiveness of the essential oils lavender and ginger in promoting children’s comfort in a perianesthesia setting,” J. Perianesthesia Nurs. Off. J. Am. Soc. PeriAnesthesia Nurses Am. Soc. PeriAnesthesia Nurses, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 307–312, Oct. 2009. 

  5. R. McCaffrey, D. J. Thomas, and A. O. Kinzelman, “The effects of lavender and rosemary essential oils on test-taking anxiety among graduate nursing students,” Holist. Nurs. Pract., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 88–93, Apr. 2009.
  6. Zhu R, Liu H, Liu C et al. Cinnamaldehyde in diabetes: A review of pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and safety. Pharmacol Res. 2017 Aug;122:78-89. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2017.05.019.

doTERRA Align Chemistry

  1. Soto-Vásquez MR, Alvarado-García PA. Aromatherapy with two essential oils from Satureja genre and mindfulness meditation to reduce anxiety in humans. J Tradit Complement Med. 2016;7(1):121-125.
  2. Singer, MS. Analysis of the molecular basis for octanal interactions in the expressed rat 17 olfactory receptor. Chem Senses 25:155-165, 2000.
  3. D. P. de Sousa, P. de Almeida Soares Hocayen, L. N. Andrade, and R. Andreatini, “A Systematic Review of the Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Essential Oils in Animal Models,” Mol. Basel Switz., vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 18620–18660, 2015.
  4. L. Rombolà, M. T. Corasaniti, D. Rotiroti, C. Tassorelli, S. Sakurada, G. Bagetta, and L. A. Morrone, “Effects of systemic administration of the essential oil of bergamot (BEO) on gross behaviour and EEG power spectra recorded from the rat hippocampus and cerebral cortex,” Funct. Neurol., vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 107–112, Jun. 2009.
  5. D. Amantea, V. Fratto, S. Maida, D. Rotiroti, S. Ragusa, G. Nappi, G. Bagetta, and M. T. Corasaniti, “Chapter 27 Prevention of Glutamate Accumulation and Upregulation of Phospho‐Akt may Account for Neuroprotection Afforded by Bergamot Essential Oil against Brain Injury Induced by Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rat,” in International Review of Neurobiology, vol. 85, Elsevier, 2009, pp. 389–405.
  6. T. Sakurada, H. Mizoguchi, H. Kuwahata, S. Katsuyama, T. Komatsu, L. A. Morrone, M. T. Corasaniti, G. Bagetta, and S. Sakurada, “Intraplantar injection of bergamot essential oil induces peripheral antinociception mediated by opioid mechanism,” Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., vol. 97, no. 3, pp. 436–443, Jan. 2011.
  7. M. T. Corasaniti, J. Maiuolo, S. Maida, V. Fratto, M. Navarra, R. Russo, D. Amantea, L. A. Morrone, and G. Bagetta, “Cell signaling pathways in the mechanisms of neuroprotection afforded by bergamot essential oil against NMDA-induced cell death in vitro,” Br. J. Pharmacol., vol. 151, no. 4, pp. 518–529, Jun. 2007.
  8. H. Kuwahata, T. Komatsu, S. Katsuyama, M. T. Corasaniti, G. Bagetta, S. Sakurada, T. Sakurada, and K. Takahama, “Peripherally injected linalool and bergamot essential oil attenuate mechanical allodynia via inhibiting spinal ERK phosphorylation,” Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., vol. 103, no. 4, pp. 735–741, Feb. 2013.
  9. R. Tundis, M. R. Loizzo, M. Bonesi, F. Menichini, V. Mastellone, C. Colica, and F. Menichini, “Comparative study on the antioxidant capacity and cholinesterase inhibitory activity of Citrus aurantifolia Swingle, C. aurantium L., and C. bergamia Risso and Poit. peel essential oils,” J. Food Sci., vol. 77, no. 1, pp. H40-46, Jan. 2012.
  10. S. Darvesh, D. A. Hopkins, and C. Geula, “Neurobiology of butyrylcholinesterase,” Nat. Rev. Neurosci., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 131–138, Feb. 2003.
  11. L. A. Morrone, L. Rombolà, C. Pelle, M. T. Corasaniti, S. Zappettini, P. Paudice, G. Bonanno, and G. Bagetta, “The essential oil of bergamot enhances the levels of amino acid neurotransmitters in the hippocampus of rat: Implication of monoterpene hydrocarbons,” Pharmacol. Res., vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 255–262, Apr. 2007.
  12. K.-M. Chang and C.-W. Shen, “Aromatherapy benefits autonomic nervous system regulation for elementary school faculty in taiwan,” Evid.-Based Complement. Altern. Med. ECAM, vol. 2011, p. 946537, 2011.
  13. C.-H. Ni, W.-H. Hou, C.-C. Kao, M.-L. Chang, L.-F. Yu, C.-C. Wu, and C. Chen, “The Anxiolytic Effect of Aromatherapy on Patients Awaiting Ambulatory Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med., vol. 2013, pp. 1–5, 2013.
  14. E. Watanabe, K. Kuchta, H. Rauwald, T. Kamei, and J. Imanishi, “Mood enhancement by bergamot (Citrus bergamia (Risso) Wright & Arn.) volatile oil vapor with regards to personality and lifestyle related changes in salivary cortisol levels: A randomized cross-over trial,” Planta Med., vol. 79, no. 13, Aug. 2013.
  15. K. Lemon, “An assessment of treating depression and anxiety with aromatherapy,” Int. J. Aromather., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 63–69, 2004.
  16. S.-H. Liu, T.-H. Lin, and K.-M. Chang, “The Physical Effects of Aromatherapy in Alleviating Work-Related Stress on Elementary School Teachers in Taiwan,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med., vol. 2013, pp. 1–7, 2013.
  17. E. Watanabe, K. Kuchta, M. Kimura, H. W. Rauwald, T. Kamei, and J. Imanishi, “Effects of bergamot (Citrus bergamia (Risso) Wright & Arn.) essential oil aromatherapy on mood states,
  18. Muhammad Nadeem, Faqir Muhammad Anjum, Muhammad Issa Khan, Saima Tehseen, Ahmed El ‐ Ghorab, and Javed Iqbal Sultan, “Nutritional and medicinal aspects of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.),” Br. Food J., vol. 115, no. 5, pp. 743–755, May 2013. 

  19. “Plant Care Guides :: National Gardening Association.” [Online]. Available: http://www.garden.org/plantguide/?q=show&id=3362. [Accessed: 17-Jul-2015]. 

  20. O. Cioanca, L. Hritcu, M. Mihasan, A. Trifan, and M. Hancianu, “Inhalation of coriander volatile oil increased anxiolytic-antidepressant-like behaviors and decreased oxidative status in beta-amyloid (1-42) rat model of Alzheimer’s disease,” Physiol. Behav., vol. 131, pp. 68–74, May 2014.
  21. I.-H. Kim, C. Kim, K. Seong, M.-H. Hur, H. M. Lim, and M. S. Lee, “Essential Oil Inhalation on Blood 
Pressure and Salivary Cortisol Levels in Prehypertensive and Hypertensive Subjects,” Evid.-Based 
Complement. Altern. Med. ECAM, vol. 2012, 2012. 

  22. M.-C. Ou, Y.-F. Lee, C.-C. Li, and S.-K. Wu, “The effectiveness of essential oils for patients with neck 
pain: a randomized controlled study,” J. Altern. Complement. Med. N. Y. N, vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 771– 
779, Oct. 2014. 

  23. T. Umezu, “Evaluation of the Effects of Plant-derived Essential Oils on Central Nervous System Function Using Discrete Shuttle-type Conditioned Avoidance Response in Mice: ESSENTIAL OILS AND AVOIDANCE RESPONSE,” Phytother. Res., vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 884–891, Jun. 2012.
  24. K. Kuroda, N. Inoue, Y. Ito, K. Kubota, A. Sugimoto, T. Kakuda, and T. Fushiki, “Sedative effects of the jasmine tea odor and (R)-(-)-linalool, one of its major odor components, on autonomic nerve activity and mood states,” Eur. J. Appl. Physiol., vol. 95, no. 2–3, pp. 107–114, Oct. 2005.

doTERRA Arise Chemistry

 

  1. Goepfert M, Liebl P, Herth N et al. Aroma oil therapy in palliative care: a pilot study with physiological parameters in conscious as well as unconscious patients. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. (2017) Jun 20. doi: 10.1007/s00432-017-2460-0
  2. Heuberger E, Hongratanaworakit T, Böhm C, Weber R, Buchbauer G. Effects of chiral fragrances on human autonomic nervous system parameters and self-evaluation. Chem Senses. 2001 Mar;26(3):281-92.
  3. Yang H, Woo J, Pae AN et al. α-Pinene, a Major Constituent of Pine Tree Oils, Enhances Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep in Mice through GABAA-benzodiazepine Receptors. Mol Pharmacol. 2016 Nov;90(5):530-539. Epub 2016 Aug 29.
  4. Matsubara E, Fukagawa M, Okamoto T et al. (-)-Bornyl acetate induces autonomic relaxation and reduces arousal level after visual display terminal work without any influences of task performance in low-dose condition. Biomed Res. 2011 Apr;32(2):151-7
  5. Matsubara E, Fukagawa M, Okamoto T et al. The essential oil of Abies sibirica (Pinaceae) reduces arousal levels after visual display terminal work. Flavour Frag J. 2011;26(3):204-210.
  6. Guzmán-Gutiérrez SL, Bonilla-Jaime H, Gómez-Cansino R et al. Linalool and β-pinene exert their antidepressant-like activity through the monoaminergic pathway. Life Sci. 2015 May 1;128:24-9. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2015.02.021.

Chemistry of Siberian Fir Oil

  1. Boyd EM, Sheppard EP. Nutmeg Oil and Camphene as Inhaled Expectorants. Arch Otolaryngol. 1970;92(4):372-378. doi:10.1001/archotol.1970.04310040060011
  2. Kim SH, Lee SY, Hong CY et al. Whitening and antioxidant activities of bornyl acetate and nezukol fractionated from Cryptomeria japonica essential oil. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2013 Oct;35(5):484-90. doi: 10.1111/ics.12069. Epub 2013 Jul 6.
  3. Yang H, Woo J, Pae AN et al. α-Pinene, a Major Constituent of Pine Tree Oils, Enhances Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep in Mice through GABAA-benzodiazepine Receptors. Mol Pharmacol. 2016 Nov;90(5):530-539. Epub 2016 Aug 29. 

Blue Tansy Essential Oil

 

  1. Srivastava JK, Pandey M, Gupta S. Chamomile, a novel and selective COX-2 inhibitor with anti-inflammatory activity. Life Sci. 2009 Nov 4; 85(19-20): 663–669.
  2. L. Ornano et al., “Chemopreventive and Antioxidant Activity of the Chamazulene-Rich Essential Oil Obtained from Artemisia arborescens L. Growing on the Isle of La Maddalena, Sardinia, Italy,” Chem. Biodivers., vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 1464–1474, Aug. 2013.
  3. J. Valente et al., “Antifungal, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oenanthe crocata L. essential oil,” Food Chem. Toxicol., vol. 62, pp. 349–354, Dec. 2013.
  4. Rao VS, Menezes AM, Viana GS. Effect of myrcene on nociception in mice. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1990 Dec;42(12):877-8.
  5. Hwang E, Ngo HTT, Park B, Seo SA, Yang JE, Yi TH. Myrcene, an Aromatic Volatile Compound, Ameliorates Human Skin Extrinsic Aging via Regulation of MMPs Production. Am J Chin Med. 2017;45(5):1113-1124. doi: 10.1142/S0192415X17500604. Epub 2017 Jun 28. 

Endocannabinoids Explained

 

  1. Leweke FM, Piomelli C, Pahlisch F, et al. Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. Translational Psychiatry (2012) 2, e94; doi:10.1038/tp.2012.15
  2. Pertwee RG. The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin. Br J Pharmacol. 2008 Jan; 153(2): 199–215.
  3. A. Chicca et al., “Functionalization of β-caryophyllene generates novel polypharmacology in the endocannabinoid system,” ACS Chem. Biol., vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 1499–1507, Jul. 2014. 

Copaiba Essential Oil

 

  1. A. G. da Silva et al., “Application of the essential oil from copaiba (Copaifera langsdori Desf.) for acne vulgaris: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial,” Altern. Med. Rev. J. Clin. Ther., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 69–75, Mar. 2012.
  2. S. S. Dahham et al., “The Anticancer, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of the Sesquiterpene β-Caryophyllene from the Essential Oil of Aquilaria crassna,” Mol. Basel Switz., vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 11808–11829, 2015.
  3. B. Bayala et al., “Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 3, p. e92122, Mar. 2014.
  4. M. A. Abbas, M. O. Taha, M. A. Zihlif, and A. M. Disi, “β-Caryophyllene causes regression of endometrial implants in a rat model of endometriosis without affecting fertility,” Eur. J. Pharmacol., vol. 702, no. 1–3, pp. 12–19, Feb. 2013.
  5. M. I. Campos, W. Vieira, C. Campos, F. Aarestrup, and B. Aarestrup, “Atorvastatin and trans caryophyllene for the prevention of leukopenia in an experimental chemotherapy model in Wistar rats,” Mol. Clin. Oncol., Apr. 2015.
  6. D. Dias et al., “Copaiba Oil Suppresses Inflammatory Cytokines in Splenocytes of C57Bl/6 Mice Induced with Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE),” Molecules, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 12814–12826, Aug. 2014.
  7. C. Vilanovabr, S. Ribeirobr, R. Machadobr, S. Vieirabr, S. debrLimabr, and P. Martins, “Evaluation of oil-resin activity of Copaifera sp. on gastric emptying in Rattus<br>novergicus,” Emir. J. Food Agric., vol. 23, no. 1, p. 394, 2013.
  8. Y.-T. Tung, M.-T. Chua, S.-Y. Wang, and S.-T. Chang, “Anti-inflammation activities of essential oil and its constituents from indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum) twigs,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 99, no. 9, pp. 3908–3913, Jun. 2008.
  9. M. J. Chavan, P. S. Wakte, and D. B. Shinde, “Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Caryophyllene oxide from Annona squamosa L. bark,” Phytomedicine Int. J. Phytother. Phytopharm., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 149–151, Feb. 2010.
  10. C. Ghelardini, N. Galeotti, L. Di Cesare Mannelli, G. Mazzanti, and A. Bartolini, “Local anaesthetic activity of beta-caryophyllene,” Farm. Soc. Chim. Ital. 1989, vol. 56, no. 5–7, pp. 387–389, Jul. 2001.
  11. J. Y. Cho, H.-J. Chang, S.-K. Lee, H.-J. Kim, J.-K. Hwang, and H. S. Chun, “Amelioration of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice by oral administration of beta-caryophyllene, a sesquiterpene,” Life Sci., vol. 80, no. 10, pp. 932–939, Feb. 2007.
  12. F. A. Pieri, M. C. M. Mussi, J. E. Fiorini, M. A. S. Moreira, and J. M. Schneedorf, “Bacteriostatic effect of copaiba oil (Copaifera officinalis) against Streptococcus mutans,” Braz. Dent. J., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 36–38, 2012.
  13. A. O. Santos, T. Ueda-Nakamura, B. P. Dias Filho, V. F. Veiga Junior, A. C. Pinto, and C. V. Nakamura, “Effect of Brazilian copaiba oils on Leishmania amazonensis,” J. Ethnopharmacol., vol. 120, no. 2, pp. 204–208, Nov. 2008.
  14. E. S. Otaguiri et al., “Antibacterial combination of oleoresin from Copaifera multijuga Hayne and biogenic silver nanoparticles towards Streptococcus agalactiae,” Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol., Dec. 2016.
  15. C. A. C. G. Simões, N. C. de O. Conde, G. N. Venâncio, P. S. L. L. Milério, M. F. C. L. Bandeira, and V. F. da Veiga Júnior, “Antibacterial Activity of Copaiba Oil Gel on Dental Biofilm,” Open Dent. J., vol. 10, pp. 188–195, May 2016.
  16. L. a. F. Paiva et al., “Protective effect of Copaifera langsdorffii oleo-resin against acetic acid-induced colitis in rats,” J. Ethnopharmacol., vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 51–56, Jul. 2004.
  17. A. Guimarães-Santos et al., “Copaiba Oil-Resin Treatment Is Neuroprotective and Reduces Neutrophil Recruitment and Microglia Activation after Motor Cortex Excitotoxic Injury,” Evid.-Based Complement. Altern. Med. ECAM, vol. 2012, 2012.
  18. C. Kobayashi et al., “Pharmacological evaluation of Copaifera multijuga oil in rats,” Pharm. Biol., vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 306–313, Mar. 2011.
  19. M. Curio, H. Jacone, J. Perrut, A. C. Pinto, V. F. V. Filho, and R. C. B. Silva, “Acute effect of Copaifera reticulata Ducke copaiba oil in rats tested in the elevated plus-maze: an ethological analysis,” J. Pharm. Pharmacol., vol. 61, no. 8, pp. 1105–1110, Aug. 2009.
  20. N. de M. Gomes, C. M. de Rezende, S. P. Fontes, M. E. Matheus, A. da C. Pinto, and P. D. Fernandes, “Characterization of the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of fractions obtained from Copaifera multijuga Hayne,” J. Ethnopharmacol., vol. 128, no. 1, pp. 177–183, Mar. 2010.
  21. N. M. Gomes, C. M. Rezende, S. P. Fontes, M. E. Matheus, and P. D. Fernandes, “Antinociceptive activity of Amazonian Copaiba oils,” J. Ethnopharmacol., vol. 109, no. 3, pp. 486–492, Feb. 2007.
  22. V. F. Veiga Junior, E. C. Rosas, M. V. Carvalho, M. G. M. O. Henriques, and A. C. Pinto, “Chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activity of copaiba oils from Copaifera cearensis Huber ex Ducke, Copaifera reticulata Ducke and Copaifera multijuga Hayne--a comparative study,” J. Ethnopharmacol., vol. 112, no. 2, pp. 248–254, Jun. 2007.
  23. M. F. C. L. Bandeira et al., “Dentin Cleaning Ability of an Amazon Bioactive: Evaluation by Scanning Electron Microscopy,” Open Dent. J., vol. 10, pp. 182–187, May 2016.
  24. M. A. Dias-da-Silva, A. C. Pereira, M. C. Marin, and M. A. Salgado, “The influence of topic and systemic administration of copaiba oil on the alveolar wound healing after tooth extraction in rats,” J. Clin. Exp. Dent., vol. 5, no. 4, pp. e169–e173, Oct. 2013.
  25. P. L. Tobouti et al., “Influence of melaleuca and copaiba oils on Candida albicans adhesion,” Gerodontology, p. n/a-n/a, Nov. 2014.
  26. J. Nogueira Neto et al., “Changes in the volume and histology of endometriosis foci in rats treated with copaiba oil (Copaiferalangsdorffii),” Acta Cir. Bras., vol. 26, pp. 20–24, 2011.
  27. A. O. dos Santos et al., “Leishmania amazonensis: Effects of oral treatment with copaiba oil in mice,” Exp. Parasitol., vol. 129, no. 2, pp. 145–151, Oct. 2011.
  28. A. O. dos Santos, T. Ueda-Nakamura, B. P. Dias Filho, V. F. da Veiga Junior, and C. V. Nakamura, “Copaiba Oil: An Alternative to Development of New Drugs against Leishmaniasis,” Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med., vol. 2012, pp. 1–7, 2012.
  29. L. R. M. Estevão, J. P. de Medeiros, L. Baratella-Evêncio, R. S. Simões, F. de S. Mendonça, and J. Evêncio-Neto, “Effects of the topical administration of copaiba oil ointment (Copaifera langsdorffii) in skin flaps viability of rats,” Acta Cir. Bras., vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 863–869, 2013.
  30. L. Garcia et al., “Biocompatibility assessment of pastes containing Copaiba oilresin, propolis, and calcium hydroxide in the subcutaneous tissue of rats,” J. Conserv. Dent. JCD, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 108–112, 2011.
  31. A. G. Guimarães et al., “Bioassay-guided evaluation of antioxidant and antinociceptive activities of carvacrol,” Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol., vol. 107, no. 6, pp. 949–957, Dec. 2010.
  32. L. G. Lucca et al., “Determination of β-caryophyllene skin permeation/retention from crude copaiba oil (Copaifera multijuga Hayne) and respective oil-based nanoemulsion using a novel HS-GC/MS method,” J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal., vol. 104, pp. 144–148, Feb. 2015.
  33. G. Svetlichny et al., “Solid lipid nanoparticles containing copaiba oil and allantoin: development and role of nanoencapsulation on the antifungal activity,” Pharm., vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 155–164, Mar. 2015. 

Beta-Caryophyllene



  1. Mackie K. Understanding cannabinoid psychoactivity with mouse genetic models. PLOS Biology. 2007. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.0050280
  2. Basu S. and Dittel B. Unraveling the complexities of the cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) immune regulation in health and disease. Immunologic Research. 2015;51(1):26-38.
  3. Toguri j, et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of cannabinoid CB2 receptor activation in endotoxin-induced uveitis. British Journal of Pharmacology. 2014;171(6):1448-1461.
  4. Dhopeshwarker A. and Mackie K. CB2 cannabinoid receptors as a therapeutic agent – what does the future hold? Molecular Pharmacology.2014;86(4):430-437.
  5. Fidyt K, et al. β‐caryophyllene and β‐caryophyllene oxide—natural compounds of anticancer and analgesic properties. Cancer Medicine.2016;5(10):3007-3017. 

doTERRA Cardamom Study



Han et al. 2017. Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) essential oil significantly inhibits vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and impacts genome-wide gene expression in human dermal fibroblasts. Cogent Medicine, 4(1), 1308066. https://doi.org/10.1080/2331205X.2017.1308066
 

doTERRA Melaleuca Study



Melaleuca (Melaleuca alternifolia) essential oil demonstrates tissue-remodeling and metabolism-modulating activities in human skin cells, Xuesheng Han & Tory L. Parker, Cogent Biology (2017), 3: 1318476.
  

doTERRA Arborvitae Study



Han, X., & Parker, T. L. (2017). Arborvitae (Thuja plicata) essential oil significantly inhibited critical inflammation- and tissue remodeling-related proteins and genes in human dermal fibroblasts. Biochimie Open, 4, 56–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopen.2017.02.003  

Alpha-Pinene

  1. Rivas da Silva A, et al. Biological activities of α-Pinene and β-Pinene enantiomers. Mol. Basel Switz. 2012; 17(6): 6305–6316.
  2. Cavaleiro C, Salgueiro L, Gonçalves M, Hrimpeng K, Pinto J, Pinto E. Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Angelica major against Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species. J. Nat. Med. 2015;69(2):241–248.
  3. Kim D, et al. Alpha-Pinene Exhibits AntiInflammatory Activity through the Suppression of MAPKs and the NF-κB Pathway in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages. Am. J. Chin. Med. 2015; 43(4):731–742.
  4. Li X, et al. α-Pinene, linalool, and 1-octanol contribute to the topical anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of frankincense by inhibiting COX-2. J. Ethnopharmacol. Dec. 2015.
  5. Zhou J, Tang F, Mao G, Bian R. Effect of alpha-Pinene on nuclear translocation of NF-kappa B in THP-1 cells. Acta Pharmacol. Sin. 2004;25(4):480–484.
  6. Kusuhara M, et al. Fragrant environment with α-Pinene decreases tumor growth in mice. Biomed. Res. Tokyo Jpn. 2012;33(1):57–61.
  7. Kim D, et al. Alpha-Pinene Exhibits Anti-Inflammatory Activity Through the Suppression of MAPKs and the NF-κB Pathway in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages. Am. J. Chin. Med. 2015;43(4): 731–742.
  8. Zhou J, Tang F, Mao G, Bian R. Effect of alpha-Pinene on nuclear translocation of NF-kappa B in THP-1 cells. Acta Pharmacol. Sin.2004;25(4):480–484.
  9. Matthys H, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of myrtol standardized in acute bronchitis. A multi-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel group clinical trial vs. cefuroxime and ambroxol. Arzneimittelforschung. 2000;50(8):pp. 700–711.
  10. Begrow F, et al. Effect of myrtol standardized and other substances on the respiratory tract: ciliary beat frequency and mucociliary clearance as parameters. Adv. Ther. 2012;29(4):350–358.
  11. Behrbohm H, Kaschke O, Sydow K. Effect of the phytogenic secretolytic drug Gelomyrtol forte on mucociliary clearance of the maxillary sinus. Laryngorhinootologie. 1995;74(12): 733–737.

doTERRA Frankincense Study
Han, X., Rodriguez, D., & Parker, T. L. (2017). Biological activities of frankincense essential oil in human dermal fibroblasts. Biochimie Open, 4, 31-35. doi:10.1016/j.biopen.2017.01.003

doTERRA Deep Blue® Study

  1. Han, X., & Parker, T. L. (2017). Essential oils diversely modulate genome-wide gene expression in human dermal fibroblasts. Cogent Medicine. 4(1). doi:10.1080/2331205x.2017.1307591
  2. Ward, S. (2012). Faculty of 1000 evaluation for A selective inhibitor reveals PI3Kγ dependence of TH17 cell differentiation. F1000 - Post-publication peer review of the biomedical literature.
  3. Berg, E. L., Yang, J., Melrose, J., Nguyen, D., Privat, S., Rosler, E., . . . Ekins, S. (2010). Chemical target and pathway toxicity mechanisms defined in primary human cell systems. Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods. 61(1), 3-15.

doTERRA Lemongrass Study

  1. Han et. al. (2017). Lemongrass ( Cymbopogon flexuosus ) essential oil demonstrated anti-inflammatory effect in pre-inflamed human dermal fibroblasts. Biochimie Open. 4, 107-111. doi:10.1016/j.biopen.2017.03.004
  2. Ward, S. (2012). Faculty of 1000 evaluation for A selective inhibitor reveals PI3Kγ dependence of TH17 cell differentiation. F1000 - Post-publication peer review of the biomedical literature.
  3. Berg, E. L., Yang, J., Melrose, J., Nguyen, D., Privat, S., Rosler, E., . . . Ekins, S. (2010). Chemical target and pathway toxicity mechanisms defined in primary human cell systems. Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods. 61(1), 3-15. 

Dilution with Essential Oil Nanoparticles

Trinetta V, Morgan MT, Coupland JN, et al. Essential Oils Against Pathogen and Spoilage Microorganisms of Fruit Juices: Use of Versatile Antimicrobial Delivery Systems. J Food Sci. 2017;82(2):471-476.
 

Aromatherapy and Meditation Combined to Reduce Stress

Soto-Vásquez MR, Alvarado-García PA. Aromatherapy with two essential oils from Satureja genre and mindfulness meditation to reduce anxiety in humans. J Tradit Complement Med. 2016;7(1):121-125.
 
Childbirth and Essential Oils

  1. Dhany AL, Mitchell T, Foy C. Aromatherapy and massage intrapartum service impact on use of analgesia and anesthesia in women in labor: A retrospective case note analysis. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2012;18(10):932-938.
  2. Rashidi Fakari F, Tabatabaeichehr M, Kamali H, et al. Effect of Inhalation of Aroma of Geranium Essence on Anxiety and Physiological Parameters during First Stage of Labor in Nulliparous Women: a Randomized Clinical Trial. J Caring Sci. 2015;4(2):135-141.
  3. Namazi M, Amir Ali Akbari S, Mojab F, Et Al. Aromatherapy With Citrus Aurantium Oil and Anxiety During the First Stage of Labor. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2014;16(6):e18371.
  4. Burns E, Blamey C, Ersser SJ, et al. The use of aromatherapy in intrapartum midwifery practice an observational study. Complement Ther Nurs Midwifery. 2000;6(1):33-34.
  5. Cruz AB, Lee SE, Pagaduan JC, et al. Effects of lavender (lavandula angustifolia Mill.) and peppermint (Mentha cordifolia Opiz.) aromas on subjective vitality, speed, and agility. The Asian International Journal of Life Sciences. 2012;21(1):31-37.
  6. Moss M, Hewitt S, Moss L. Modulation of cognitive performance and mood by aromas of peppermint and ylang ylang. Intern. J. Neuroscience. 2008;118:59-77.
  7. Jafarzadeh M, Arman S, Pour FF. Effect of aromatherapy with orange essential oil on salivary cortisol and pulse rate in children during dental treatment: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Adv Biomed Res. 2013;2:10.
  8. Lehrner J, Marwinski G, Lehr S, et al. Ambient odors of orange and lavender reduce anxiety and improve mood in a dental office. Physiol Behav. 2005;86(1-2):92-95.
  9. Lehrner J, Eckersberger C, Walla P, et al. Ambient odor of orange in a dental office reduces anxiety and improves mood in female patients. Physiol Behav. 2000;71(1-2):83-86.
  10. Dale A, Cornwell S. The role of lavender oil in relieving perineal discomfort following childbirth: a blind randomized clinical trial. J Adv Nurs.1994;19(1):89-96.
  11. Sheikhan F, Jahdi F, Khoei EM, Et Al. Episiotomy pain relief: Use of Lavender oil essence in primiparous Iranian women. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2012;18(1):66-70.
  12. Jones C. The efficacy of lavender oil on perineal trauma: a review of the evidence. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2011;17(4):215-220.
  13. Vakilian K, Atarha M, Bekhradi R, Et Al. Healing advantages of lavender essential oil during episiotomy recovery: a clinical trial. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2011;17(1):50-53.
  14. Hur MH, Han SH. Clinical trial of aromatherapy on postpartum mother's perineal healing. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi. 2004;34(1):53-62.

Kumquat

  1. Choi H. Characteristic odor components of kumquat peel oil. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2005;53(5):1642-1647.
  2. Nouri A and Shafaghatlonbar A. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of essential oil and organic extract from the peel and kernel parts of Citrus japonica Thunb. (kumquat) from Iran. Natural Products Research. 2016;30(9):1093-1097.
  3. Russo E. Taming THC: Potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects. British Journal of Pharmacology.2010;163:1344-1364.
  4. Yang E, et al. Inhibitory effects of Fortunella japonica var. margarita and Citrus sunki essential oils on nitric oxide production and skin pathogens. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung. 2010;57(1):15-27.
  5. Wang, et al. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of kumquat peel. International Journal of Molecular Science. 2012;13:3382-3393.
  6. Zhou J, Tang F, Mao G, Bian R. Effect of alpha-pinene on nuclear translocation of NF-kappa B in THP-1 cells. Acta Pharmacol. Sin.2004;25(4):480–484. 

Red Mandarin

  1. Bourgou S, et al. Changes of peel essential oil composition of four Tunisian citrus during fruit maturation. Scientific World Journal. 2012. doi: 10.1100/2012/528593.
  2. Barchiesi F, et al. In vitro susceptibility of dermatophytes to conventional and alternative antifungal agents. Med. Mycol. 2009;47(3):321–326.

 Sunny Citrus

  1. M.r S, et al. The comparison of the efficacy of citrus fragrance and fluoxetine in the treatment of major depressive disorder. 2004:10(3):43–48.
  2. Han X, Gibson J, Eggett D, and Parker T. Bergamot (Citrus bergamia) essential oil inhalation improves positive feelings in the waiting room of a mental health treatment center: a pilot study. Phytotherapy Research. 2017. DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5806.
  3. Moss M, et al. Modulation of cognitive performance and mood by aromas of peppermint and ylang-ylang. Int. J. Neurosci. 2008;118(1):59–77.
  4. Goel N. and Lao R. Sleep changes vary by odor perception in young adults. Biol. Psychol., 2006;71(3):341–349.
  5. Umezu T. Evaluation of the effects of plant-derived essential oils on central nervous system function using discrete shuttle-type conditioned avoidance response in mice. Phytother. Res. PTR. 2012; 26(6):884–891.
  6. O’Bryan C, et al. Orange Essential Oils Antimicrobial Activities against Salmonella spp. J. Food Sci. 2008:73(6):M264–M267.
  7. Muthaiyan A, et al. Application of orange essential oil as an antistaphylococcal agent in a dressing model. BMC Complement. Altern. Med. 2012;12(1):1.
  8. Samber N, et al. Synergistic anti-candidal activity and mode of action of Mentha piperita essential oil and its major components. Pharm. Biol.2015;53(10);1496-1504.
  9. Schelz Z, et al. Antimicrobial and antiplasmid activities of essential oils. Fitoterapia. 2006;77(4): 279–285.
  10. Saharkhiz M, et al. Chemical Composition, Antifungal and Antibiofilm Activities of the Essential Oil of Mentha piperita L. ISRN Pharm. 2012; vol. 2012:p. 718645.

Terpinen

  1. Hart P, et al. Terpinen-4-ol, the main component of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil), suppresses inflammatory mediator production by activated human monocytes. Inflamm. Res. Off. J. Eur. Histamine Res. Soc. 2000;49(11):619–626.
  2. Nogueira M, Aquino S, Rossa C, Spolidorio D. Terpinen-4-ol and alphaterpineol (tea tree oil components) inhibit the production of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 on human Macrophages. Inflamm. Res. Off. J. Eur. Histamine Res. Soc. 2014;63(9):769–778.
  3. Ninomiya K, et al. Suppression of inflammatory reactions by terpinen-4-ol, a main constituent of tea tree oil, in a murine model of oral candidiasis and its suppressive activity to cytokine production of macrophages in vitro. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2013;36(5):838–844.
  4. Loughlin R, Gilmore B, McCarron P, Tunney M. Comparison of the cidal activity of tea tree oil and terpinen-4-ol against clinical bacterial skin isolates and human fibroblast cells. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 2008;46(4):428–433.
  5. Z. Khalil Z, et al. Regulation of wheal and flare by tea tree oil: complementary human and rodent studies. J. Invest. Dermatol. 2004;123(4):683–690.
  6. Raman A, Weir U, Bloomfield S. Antimicrobial effects of tea-tree oil and its major components on Staphylococcus aureus, Staph. epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 1995;21(4):242–245.
  7. Bozzuto G, Colone M, Toccacieli L, Stringaro A, Molinari A. Tea tree oil might combat Melanoma. Planta Med. 2011;77(1):54–56.
  8. Greay S, et al. Induction of necrosis and cell cycle arrest in murine cancer cell lines by Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil and terpinen-4-ol. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.2010;65(5):877–888.
  9. Wu C, et al. Terpinen-4-ol Induces Apoptosis in Human Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer In Vitro and In Vivo. Evid.-Based Complement. Altern. Med. ECAM. 2012:818261.
  10. Ninomiya K, et al. Suppression of inflammatory reactions by terpinen-4-ol, a main constituent of tea tree oil, in a murine model of oral candidiasis and its suppressive activity to cytokine production of macrophages in vitro. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2013;36(5):838–844.
  11. Taga I, Lan C, Altosaar I. Plant essential oils and mastitis disease: their potential inhibitory effects on pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to bacteria related inflammation. Nat. Prod. Commun. 2012;7(5):675–682.
  12. Ramage G, et al.. Antifungal, cytotoxic, and immunomodulatory properties of tea tree oil and its derivative components: potential role in management of oral candidosis in cancer patients. Front. Microbiol. 2012; 3:220.
  13. Ninomiya K, et al. The essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil) and its main component, terpinen-4-ol protect mice from experimental oral candidiasis. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2012; 35(6):861–865.

Citronellol

  1. Gonzalez-Audino P, et al. Comparative toxicity of oxygenated monoterpenoids in experimental hydroalcoholic lotions to permethrin resistant adult head lice. Arch. Dermatol. Res. 2011;303(5):361–366.
  2. de O. Pereira F, et al. Antifungal activity of geraniol and citronellol, two monoterpenes alcohols, against Trichophyton rubrum involves inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis. Pharm. Biol. 2015; 53(2): 228–234.
  3. Cronin H, Draelos Z. Top 10 botanical ingredients in 2010 anti-aging creams. J. Cosmet. Dermatol.2010;9(3):218–225.
  4. Nerio L, Olivero-Verbel J, Stashenko E. Repellent activity of essential oils: a review. Bioresour. Technol.2010; 101(1):372–378.
  5. Zhuang S, et al. Effect of citronellol and the Chinese medical herb complex on cellular immunity of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy/radiotherapy. Phytother. Res. PTR. 2009;23(6): 785–790.
  6. Maggi F, et al. Chemical composition and in vitro biological activities of the essential oil of Vepris macrophylla (BAKER) I.VERD. endemic to Madagascar. Chem. Biodivers. 2013;10(3):356–366.
  7. Guerrini A, et al. Chemical characterization (GC/MS and NMR Fingerprinting) and bioactivities of South-African Pelargonium capitatum (L.) L’ Her. (Geraniaceae) essential oil. Chem. Biodivers. 2011;8(4):624–642.

Linalyl Acetate

  1. Igarashi T. Physical and psychologic effects of aromatherapy inhalation on pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2013;19(10):805-810.
  2. Peana A, et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of linalool and linalyl acetate constituents of essential oils. Phytomedicine Int. J. Phytother. Phytopharm. 2002;9(8):721–726.
  3. Barocelli E.Antinociceptive and gastroprotective effects of inhaled and orally administered Lavandula hybrida Reverchon Grosso essential oil. Life Sci. 2004;76(2):213–223.
  4. Tadtong S, et al. Antimicrobial activity of blended essential oil preparation. Nat. Prod. Commun.2012;7(10):1401–1404.

Limonene

  1. Soković M, et al. Antibacterial effects of the essential oils of commonly consumed medicinal herbs using an in vitro model. Mol. Basel Switz. 2010. 15(11):7532–7546.
  2. Di Pasqua R, et al. Membrane toxicity of antimicrobial compounds from essential oils. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2007;55(12):4863–4870.
  3. Yang S, et al. Comparative study of the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of six essential oils and their components. Nat. Prod. Res. 2010;24(2):140–151.
  4. Crowell P, et al. Human metabolism of the experimental cancer therapeutic agent d-limonene. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. 1994;35(1):31–37.
  5. Manassero C, et al. In vitro comparative analysis of antiproliferative activity of essential oil from mandarin peel and its principal component limonene. Nat. Prod. Res. 2013;27(16):1475–1478.
  6. Zhang X, et al. Synergistic inhibitory effect of berberine and d-limonene on human gastric carcinoma cell line MGC803. J. Med. Food. 2014;17(9):955–962.
  7. Inouye S, Takizawa T, and Yamaguchi H. Antibacterial activity of essential oils and their major constituents against respiratory tract pathogens by gaseous contact. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 2001;47(5):565–573.
  8. Kummer R, et al.Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Citrus latifolia Tanaka Essential Oil and Limonene in Experimental Mouse Models. Evid.-Based Complement. Altern. Med. ECAM. 2013: 859083.
  9. d’Alessio P, et al. Skin repair properties of d-Limonene and perillyl alcohol in murine models. Anti-Inflamm. Anti-Allergy Agents Med. Chem. 2014;13(1):29–35.
  10. Tan X, et al. Monoterpenes: Novel insights into their biological effects and roles on glucose uptake and lipid metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Food Chem. 2016;196:242–250.
  11. Ostan R et al. Impact of diet and nutraceutical supplementation on inflammation in elderly people. Results from the RISTOMED study, an open-label randomized control trial. Clin. Nutr. Edinb. Scotl. Jul. 2015.
  12. Jing L, et al. Preventive and ameliorating effects of citrus D-limonene on dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2013;715(1–3): 46–55.
  13. Xie P, et al. Effect of toothpaste containing d-limonene on natural extrinsic smoking stain: a 4-week clinical trial. Am. J. Dent. 2010;23(4):196–200.
  14. Subramenium G, et al. Limonene inhibits streptococcal biofilm formation by targeting surface-associated virulence factors. J. Med. Microbiol. 2015;64(8):879–890.

Linalool

  1. S. Tadtong, S. Suppawat, A. Tintawee, P. Saramas, S. Jareonvong, and T. Hongratanaworakit, “Antimicrobial activity of blended essential oil preparation,” Nat. Prod. Commun., vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 1401–1404, Oct. 2012.
  2. A. Herman, K. Tambor, and A. Herman, “Linalool Affects the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Essential Oils,” Curr. Microbiol., vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 165–172, Feb. 2016.
  3. A. T. Peana, P. S. D’Aquila, F. Panin, G. Serra, P. Pippia, and M. D. L. Moretti, “Anti-inflammatory activity of linalool and linalyl acetate constituents of essential oils,” Phytomedicine Int. J. Phytother. Phytopharm., vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 721–726, Dec. 2002.
  4. A. T. Peana, S. Marzocco, A. Popolo, and A. Pinto, “(-)-Linalool inhibits in vitro NO formation: Probable involvement in the antinociceptive activity of this monoterpene compound,” Life Sci., vol. 78, no. 7, pp. 719–723, Jan. 2006.
  5. M. Linck, A. L. da Silva, M. Figueiró, A. L. Piato, A. P. Herrmann, F. Dupont Birck, E. B. Caramão, D. S. Nunes, P. R. H. Moreno, and E. Elisabetsky, “Inhaled linalool-induced sedation in mice,” Phytomedicine Int. J. Phytother. Phytopharm., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 303–307, Apr. 2009.
  6. T. Umezu, “Evaluation of the Effects of Plant-derived Essential Oils on Central Nervous System Function Using Discrete Shuttle-type Conditioned Avoidance Response in Mice: ESSENTIAL OILS AND AVOIDANCE RESPONSE,” Phytother. Res., vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 884–891, Jun. 2012.
  7. K. Kuroda, N. Inoue, Y. Ito, K. Kubota, A. Sugimoto, T. Kakuda, and T. Fushiki, “Sedative effects of the jasmine tea odor and (R)-(-)-linalool, one of its major odor components, on autonomic nerve activity and mood states,” Eur. J. Appl. Physiol., vol. 95, no. 2–3, pp. 107–114, Oct. 2005.
  8. E. Barocelli, F. Calcina, M. Chiavarini, M. Impicciatore, R. Bruni, A. Bianchi, and V. Ballabeni, “Antinociceptive and gastroprotective effects of inhaled and orally administered Lavandula hybrida Reverchon ‘Grosso’ essential oil,” Life Sci., vol. 76, no. 2, pp. 213–223, Nov. 2004.

The Importance of Sourcing
Satyal P, Murray BL, McFeeters RL, et al. Essential Oil Characterization of Thymus vulgaris from Various Geographical Locations. Foods. 2016;5(4). doi: 10.3390/foods5040070.

doTERRA Balance® Grounding Blend

Chang S. Effects of aroma hand massage on pain, state anxiety and depression in hospice patients with terminal cancer. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi. 2008;38(4):493–502.
 
AromaTouch® Oil Blend: Chemistry of Usage

  1. Kuriyama H, Watanabe S, Nakaya T, et al. Immunological and Psychological Benefits of Aromatherapy Massage. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2005;2(2):179-184.
  2. Johnson JR, Rivard RL, Griffin KH, et al. The effectiveness of nurse-delivered aromatherapy in an acute care setting. Complement Ther Med. 2016;25:164-9.
  3. Varney E, Buckle J. Effect of inhaled essential oils on mental exhaustion and moderate burnout: a small pilot study. J Altern Complement Med. 2013;19(1):69-71.
  4. Toda M, Morimoto K. Effect of lavender aroma on salivary endocrinological stress markers. Arch Oral Biol. 2008;53(10):964-968.
  5. Cooke M, Holzhauser K, Jones M, Et Al. The effect of aromatherapy massage with music on the stress and anxiety levels of emergency nurses: comparison between summer and winter. J Clin Nurs. 2007;16(9):1695-1703.
  6. Lima NG, De Sousa DP, Pimenta FC, Et Al. Anxiolytic-like activity and GC-MS analysis of (R)-(+)-limonene fragrance, a natural compound found in foods and plants. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2013;103(3):450-454.
  7. de Almeida AA, Costa JP, de Carvalho RB, Et Al. Evaluation of acute toxicity of a natural compound (+)-limonene epoxide and its anxiolytic-like action. Brain Res. 2012;1448:56-62.
  8. Umezu T. Evaluation of the effects of plant-derived essential oils on central nervous system function using discrete shuttle-type conditioned avoidance response in mice. Phytother Res. 2012;26(6):884-891.

The Chemistry of Petitgrain Essential Oil

  1. Linck V, da Silva A, Figueiro M, Piato A, Herrmann A, Dupont Dirck F, Caramao E, Nunes D, Moreno P, and Elisabetsky E. Inhaled linalool-induced sedation in mice. Phytomedicine Int. J. Phytother. Phytopharm. 2009; 16(4):303-307.
  2. Umezu T. Evaluation of the effects of plant-derived essential oils on central nervous system function using discrete shuttle-type conditioned avoidance response in mice. Phytother. Res. 2012; 26(6):884-891.
  3. Kuroda K, Inoue N, Ito Y, Kubota K, Sugimoto A, Kakuda T, Fushiki T. Sedative effects of the jasmine tea odor and (R)-(-)-linalool, one of its major odor components, on autonomic nerve activity and mood states. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 2005; 95(2-3):107-114.
  4. Tadtong S, Suppawat S, Tintawee A, Saramas P, Jareonvong S, Hongratanaworakit T. Antimicrobial activity of blended essential oil preparation. Nat. Prod. Commun. 2012; 7(10):1401-1404.
  5. Ellouze I, Abderrabba M, Sabaou N, Mathieu F, Lebrihi A, Bouajila J. Season's variation impact on Citrus aurantium leaves essential oil: chemical composition and biological activities. J. Food Sci. 2012; 77(9):T173-180.
  6. Koto R, Imamura M, Watanabe C, Obayashi S, Shiraishi M, Sasaki Y, Azuma H. Linalyl acetate as a major ingredience of lavender essential oil relaxes the rabbit vascular smooth muscle through dephosphorylation of myosin light chain. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 2006; 48(1):850-856.
  7. Barocelli E, Calcina F, Chiavarini M, Impicciatore M, Bruni R, Bianchi A, Ballabeni V. Antinociceptive and gastroprotective effects of inhaled and orally administered Lavandula hybrida Reverchon Grosso essential oil. Life Sci. 2004; 76(2):213-223.
  8. Peana A, D'Aquila P, Panin F, Serra G, Pippia P, Moretti M. Anti-inflammatory activity of linalool and linalyl acetate constituents of essential oils. Phytomedicine Int. J. Phytother. Pyhtopharm. 2002; 9(8): 921-726.
  9. Takahashi M, Satou T, Ohashi M, Hayashi S, Sadamoto K, Koike K. Interspecies comparison of chemical composition and anxiolytic-like effects of lavender oils upon inhalation. Nat. Prod. Commun. 2011; 6(11):1769-1774.
  10. Sarrou E, Chatzopoulou P, Dimassi-Theriou K, Therios I. Volatile Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Peel, Flowers and Leaf Oils of Citrus aurantium L. Growing in Greece. Molecules. 2013; 18(9): 10639-10647.
  11. Chaiyana W, Okonogi S. Inhibition of cholinesterase by essential oil from food plant. Phytomedicine Int. J. Phytother. Phytopharm. 2012; 19(8-9):836-839.

Monoterpenes: Taking a Deeper Breath

Paparoupa M, Gillissen A. Is Myrtol® Standardized a New Alternative toward Antibiotics? Pharmacogn Rev. 2016;10(20):143-146. DOI: 10.4103/0973-7847.194045.

The Antioxidant Benefits of Carvacrol
Türkez H, Aydın E. Investigation of cytotoxic, genotoxic and oxidative properties of carvacrol in human blood cells. Toxicol Ind Health. 2016;32(4):625-33. doi: 10.1177/0748233713506771.

 Marjoram Essential Oil May Support Neurological Function

  1. Cummings JL, Vinters HV, Cole GM, Khachaturian ZS. Alzheimer's disease: Etiologies, pathophysiology. Cognitive reserve and treatment opportunities. Neurology. 1988;51:2-17
  2. Hajlaoui H, Mighri H, Aouni M, Gharsallah N, Kadri A. Chemical composition and in vitro evaluation of antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxicity and anti-acetylcholinesterase properties of Tunisian Origanum majorana L. essential oil. Microb Pathog. 2016;95:86-94. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2016.03.003.

Plants Smell Terpenes
Matsui K. A portion of plant airborne communication is endorsed by uptake and metabolism of volatile organic compounds. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2016;32:24-30. doi:10.1016/j.pbi.2016.05.005.

Eucalyptol and Seasonal Support
Li Y, Lai Y, Wang Y, Liu N, Zhang F, Xu P. 1, 8-Cineol Protect Against Influenza-Virus-Induced Pneumonia in Mice. Inflammation. 2016;39(4):1582-1593. doi:10.1007/s10753-016-0394-3.

Genetics of Lemongrass Essential Oil
Meena S, Kumar SR, Venkata Rao DK, et al. De Novo Sequencing and Analysis of Lemongrass Transcriptome Provide First Insights into the Essential Oil Biosynthesis of Aromatic Grasses. Front Plant Sci. 2016;7:1129. doi:10.3389/fpls.2016.01129.

Carvacrol and Thymol Support Healthy Immuno-Respiratory Resopnse in vitro 
Khosravi AR, Erle DJ. Chitin-Induced Airway Epithelial Cell Innate Immune Responses Are Inhibited by Carvacrol/Thymol. PLoS ONE11(7):e0159459.
 
Vetiver is an Environmental Superhero

  1. Joy RJ. "Sunshine" Vetivergrass Chrysopogon zizanoides (L.) Roberty. USDA NRCS Plant Guid.
  2. Banerjee R, Goswami P, Pathak K, Mukherjee A. Vetiver grass: An environmental clean-up tool for heavy metal contaminated iron ore mine-soil. Ecol Eng. 2016;90:25-34.
  3. Singh V, Thakur L, Mondal P. Removal of Lead and Chromium from Synthetic Wastewater Using Vetiveria zizanoides. CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water. 2015; 43(4):538-543.
  4. Vargas C. Perez-Esteban J, Escolastico C, Masaguer A, Moliner A. Phytoremediation of Cu and Zn by vetiver grass in mine soils amended with humic acids. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2016; 23(13):13521-13530.

Caryophyllene is a Cannabinoid

  1. Gertsch J, Leonti M, Raduner S. et al. Beta-caryophyllene is a dietary cannabinoid. Proc Nac Acad Sci. 2008; 105(26):9099-9104.
  2. Nikan M, Nabavi SM, Manayi A, Ligands for cannabinoid receptors, promising anticancer agents. Life Sci. 2016; 146:124-130.

Terpenes in the Air

  1. Alves EG, Jardine K, Tota J, et al. Seasonality of isoprenoid emissions from a primary rainforest in central Amazonia. Atmos Chem Phys. 2016; 16(6):3903-3925.
  2. Geron C, Rasmussen R, R. Arnts R, Guenther A. A review and synthesis of monoterpene speciation from forests in the United States. Atmos Environ. 2000; 34(11):1761-1781.

Oregano Supports Healthy Intestinal Morphology
Zou Y, Xiang Q, Wang J, et al. Oregano Essential Oil Improves Intestinal Morphology and Expression of Tight Junction Proteins Associated with Modulation of Selected Intestinal Bacteria and Immune Status in a Pig Model. Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:1-11.


Evolution of Spiders to Take Advantage of Essential Oils
Tedore C, Johnsen S. Immunological dependence of plant-dwelling animals on the medicinal properties of their plant substrates: a preliminary test of a novel evolutionary hypothesis. Arthropod Plant Interact. 2015; 9(5):437-446.


Do Essential Oils Remain in Food after Cooking?
Aravena G, García O, Muñoz O, Pérez-Correa JR, Parada J. The impact of cooking and delivery modes of thymol and carvacrol on retention and bioaccessibility in starchy foods. Food Chem. 2016; 196:848-852.


Geranium (and Rose) May Support Metabolic Liver Functions
Srinivasan S, Muruganathan U. Antidiabetic efficacy of citronellol, a ctirus monoterpene by ameliorating the hepatic key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Chem Biol Interact. 2016; 250:38-46.


Spearmint and Dill May Support Healthy Nervous System Function

Nogoceke FP, Barcaro IMR, de Sousa DP, Andreatini R. Antimanic-like effects of (R)-(-)-carvone and (S)-(+)-carvone in mice. Neurosci Lett. 2016:619:43-48.

Lice Repelled by Clove Oil
Iwamatsu T, Miyamoto D, Mitsuno H, et al. Identification of repellent odorants to the body louse, Pediculus humanus corporis, in clove essential oil. Parasitol Res. 2016;115(4):1659-1666.

Microbial Balance and Geraniol

  1. Marieb E, Hoehn K. Human Anatomy & Physiology. Boston: Pearson; 2013.
  2. De Fazio L, Spisni E, Cavazza E, et al. Dietary Geraniol by Oral or Enema Administration Strongly Reduces Dysbiosis and Systemic Inflammation in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Treated Mice. Front Pharmacol. 2016:7:38.

Omega-3 Supplementation Supports Full-Term Birth*
Kar S, Wong M, Rogozinska E, Thangaratinam S. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Prevention of Early Preterm Delivery: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomised Studies. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2015;198:40-46.
 

Linalool May Support Healthy Functioning of the Brain
Sabogal-Guáqueta AM, Osorio E, Cardona-Gómez GP. Linalool reverses neuropathological and behavioral impairments in old triple transgenic Alzheimer’s mice. Neuropharmacology. 2015;102:111-120.
 

Healthy Inflammation Response with Carvacrol
Kara M, Uslu S, Demirci F, Temel HE, Baydemir C. Supplemental carvacrol can reduce the severity of inflammation by influencing the production of mediators of inflammation. Inflammation. 2015;38(3):1020-1027.


Gardeners Take Notice
Roh HS, Kim J, Shin E-S, Lee DW, Choo HY, Park CG. Bioactivity of sandalwood oil (Santalum austrocaledonicum) and its main components against the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii. J Pest Sci (2004). 2015;88(3):621-627.


Geraniol Positively Affects Biochemical Pathways in the Colon
Soubh AA, Abdallah DM, El-Abhar HS. Geraniol ameliorates TNBS-induced colitis: Involvement of Wnt/β-catenin, p38MAPK, NFκB, and PPARγ signaling pathways. Life Sci. 2015;136:142-150.
 

Research Shows that Concentration Matters 
Llana-Ruiz-Cabello M, Gutiérrez-Praena D, Puerto M, Pichardo S, Jos Á, Cameán AM. In vitro pro-oxidant/antioxidant role of carvacrol, thymol and their mixture in the intestinal Caco-2 cell line. Toxicol In Vitro. 2015;29(4):647-656.
 

Cinnamaldehyde May Support Healthy Kidney Function  
Huang J-S, Lee Y-H, Chuang L-Y, Guh J-Y, Hwang J-Y. Cinnamaldehyde and nitric oxide attenuate advanced glycation end products-induced the Jak/STAT signaling in human renal tubular cells. J Cell Biochem. 2015;116(6):1028-1038.
 

Potential Healthy Colon Cell Support with Cinnamaldehyde  
Long M, Tao S, Rojo de la Vega M, et al. Nrf2-dependent suppression of azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium-induced colon carcinogenesis by the cinnamon-derived dietary factor cinnamaldehyde. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2015;8(5):444-454.
 

Clove’s Eugenol Helps Maintain Normal Gastrointestinal Motility
Garabadu D, Shah A, Singh S, Krishnamurthy S. Protective effect of eugenol against restraint stress-induced gastrointestinal dysfunction: Potential use in irritable bowel syndrome. Pharm Biol. 2015;53(7):968-974.

Sandalwood May Support Healthy Cell Renewal

  1. Bianconi E, Piovesan A, Facchin F, et al. An estimation of the number of cells in the human body. Ann Hum Biol. 40(6):463-471.
  2. Santha S, Dwivedi C. Anticancer Effects of Sandalwood (Santalum album). Anticancer Res. 2015;35(6):3137-3145. 

Reduce Sad Feelings with Essential Oils  
Guzmán-Gutiérrez SL, Bonilla-Jaime H, Gómez-Cansino R, Reyes-Chilpa R. Linalool and β-pinene exert their antidepressant-like activity through the monoaminergic pathway. Life Sci. 2015;128:24-29.
 
Rose Plant Communication Helps Other Plants
Yu P, Su Y, Dong C, Yao C, Ding Y, Zhou X. Preliminary proteomic analysis of tobacco leaves affected by volatile organic compounds from floral scent of rose. Plant Growth Regul. 2014;75(3):689-694.

Safety & Physiology
 

 
Nanoemulsion of Essential Oils

Borges RS, Lima ES, Keita H et al. Anti-inflammatory and antialgic actions of a nanoemulsion of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil and a molecular docking study of its major chemical constituents. Inflammopharmacology. 2017 Jul 13. doi: 10.1007/s10787-017-0374-8. 
 

Linalool and Blood Vessels
Kang P, Seol GH. Linalool elicits vasorelaxation of mouse aortae through activation of guanylyl cyclase and K(+) channels. J Pharm Pharmacol.2015;67(5):714-719.
 

A Chemist's Perspective: Cannabinoids, Cannabis, and Caryophyllene



  1. Gertsch J, Leonti M, Raduner S et al. Beta-caryophyllene is a dietary cannabinoid. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jul 1;105(26):9099-104. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0803601105. Epub 2008 Jun 23.
  2. Klauke AL, Racz I, Pradier B et al. The cannabinoid CB₂ receptor-selective phytocannabinoid beta-caryophyllene exerts analgesic effects in mouse models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2014 Apr;24(4):608-20. doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2013.10.008. Epub 2013 Oct 22.
  3. Al Mansouri S, Ojha S, Al Maamari E et al. The cannabinoid receptor 2 agonist, β-caryophyllene, reduced voluntary alcohol intake and attenuated ethanol-induced place preference and sensitivity in mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2014 Sep;124:260-8. doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2014.06.025. Epub 2014 Jul 3.
  4. Quintans-Júnior LJ, Araújo AA et al. β-caryophyllene, a dietary cannabinoid, complexed with β-cyclodextrin produced anti-hyperalgesic effect involving the inhibition of Fos expression in superficial dorsal horn. Life Sci. 2016 Mar 15;149:34-41. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2016.02.049. Epub 2016 Feb 13.
  5. Chicca A, Caprioglio D, Minassi A et al. Functionalization of β-caryophyllene generates novel polypharmacology in the endocannabinoid system. ACS Chem Biol. 2014 Jul 18;9(7):1499-507. doi: 10.1021/cb500177c. Epub 2014 May 15.
  6. Horváth B, Mukhopadhyay P, Kechrid M et al. β-Caryophyllene ameliorates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in a cannabinoid 2 receptor-dependent manner. Free Radic Biol Med. 2012 Apr 15;52(8):1325-33. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.01.014. Epub 2012 Jan 31.
  7. Fine PG, Rosenfeld MJ. The endocannabinoid system, cannabinoids, and pain. Rambam Maimonides Med J. 2013 Oct 29;4(4):e0022. doi: 10.5041/RMMJ.10129. eCollection 2013.
  8. Alberti TB, Barbosa WL, Vieira JL, Raposo NR, Dutra RC. (-)-β-Caryophyllene, a CB2 Receptor-Selective Phytocannabinoid, Suppresses Motor Paralysis and Neuroinflammation in a Murine Model of Multiple Sclerosis. Int J Mol Sci. 2017 Apr 1;18(4). pii: E691. doi: 10.3390/ijms18040691.
  9. Lou J, Teng Z, Zhang L, Yang J, Ma L, Wang F, Tian X, An R, Yang M, Zhang Q, Xu L, Dong Z. β-Caryophyllene/Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex Improves Cognitive Deficits in Rats with Vascular Dementia through the Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2 -Mediated Pathway. Front Pharmacol. 2017 Jan 19;8:2. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2017.00002. eCollection 2017.
  10. Bahi A, Al Mansouri S, Al Memari E, Al Ameri M, Nurulain SM, Ojha S. β-Caryophyllene, a CB2 receptor agonist produces multiple behavioral changes relevant to anxiety and depression in mice. Physiol Behav. 2014 Aug;135:119-24. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.06.003. Epub 2014 Jun 13
  11. Kamikubo R, Kai K, Tsuji-Naito K, Akagawa M.β-Caryophyllene attenuates palmitate-induced lipid accumulation through AMPK signaling by activating CB2 receptor in human HepG2 hepatocytes. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016 Oct;60(10):2228-2242. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201600197. Epub 2016 Jun 16.
  12. Bento AF, Marcon R, Dutra RC, Claudino RF, Cola M, Leite DF, Calixto JB. β-Caryophyllene inhibits dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice through CB2 receptor activation and PPARγ pathway. Am J Pathol. 2011 Mar;178(3):1153-66. doi: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2010.11.052.
  13. Cheng Y, Dong Z, Liu S. β-Caryophyllene ameliorates the Alzheimer-like phenotype in APP/PS1 Mice through CB2 receptor activation and the PPARγ pathway. Pharmacology. 2014;94(1-2):1-12. doi: 10.1159/000362689. Epub 2014 Aug 26.
  14. Sourcing CBD: Marijuana, Industrial Hemp & the Vagaries of Federal Law. (n.d.). Retrieved September 26, 2017, from https://www.projectcbd.org/about/cannabis-facts/sourcing-cbd-marijuana-industrial-hemp-vagaries-federal-law

Lavender Oil and Serotonin

 

  1. López, V., Nielsen, B., Solas, M., Ramírez, M. J., & Jäger, A. K. (2017). Exploring Pharmacological Mechanisms of Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) Essential Oil on Central Nervous System Targets. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 8. doi:10.3389/fphar.2017.00280
  2. Rajdev, S., & Sharp, F. R. (1998). Neurotoxiciy of NMDA Receptor Antagonists. Highly Selective Neurotoxins, 355-384. doi:10.1007/978-1-59259-477-1_14
  3. Kandel, E. R., Schwartz, J. H., & Jessell, T. M. (1991). Principles of neural science. New York: Elsevier.

The Many Benefits of Quercetin


Anand David AV, Arulmoli R, Parasuraman S. Overviews of biological importance of quercetin: A bioactive flavonoid. Phcog Rev 2016;10:84-9.
 
 

The Necessity of Sleep

 

  1. Kaufmann T, Elvsåshagen T, Alnæs D, et al. The brain functional connectome is robustly altered by lack of sleep. Neuroimage. 2016;127:324-332. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.12.028.
  2. The importance of sleep. NIH Medline Plus. 2012;7:17. https://medlineplus.gov/magazine/issues/summer12/articles/summer12pg17.html. Accessed January 5, 2017.
  3. Why is sleep important? nhlbi.nih.gov. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/sdd/why. Published February 22, 2012. Accessed January 5, 1017. 

Sunlight Energizes T-Cells
Phan T, Jaruga B, Pingle S, Bandyopadhyay B, Ahern G. Intrinsic photosensitivity enhances motility of T lymphocytes. Scientific Reports. 2016;6:39479. 
 
 

Oxidized Monoterpenes
Brared Christensson J, Karlberg A-T, Andersen KE, et al. Oxidized limonene and oxidized linalool - concomitant contact allergy to common fragrance terpenes. Contact Dermatitis. 2016;74(5):273-280.
 
Safety of Peppermint (menthol) and Eucalyptus (1,8-cineole) Use in Children

  1. Sadlon AE, Lamson DW. Immune-modifying and antimicrobial effects of eucalyptus oil and simple inhalation devices. Altern Med Rev.2010;15(1):33-47.
  2. Serafino A, Sinibaldi Vallebona P, Andreola F, et al. Stimulatory effect of Eucalyptus essential oil on innate cell-mediated immune response. BMC Immunol. 2008;9:17.
  3. Ben-Arye E, Dudai N, Eini A, et al. Treatment of upper respiratory tract infections in primary care: a randomized study using aromatic herbs. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011;690346.
  4. Korterink JJ, Rutten JMTM, Venmans L, Benninga MA, Tabbers MM. Pharmacologic Treatment in Pediatric Functional Abdominal Pain Disorders: A Systematic Review. J Pediatr. 2015;166(2):424-431.e6.
  5. Khanna R, MacDonald JK, Levesque BG. Peppermint Oil for the Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome. J Clin Gastroenterol.2014;48(6):505-512.

Essential Oil Cellular Activity

  1. Bianconi E, Piovesan A, Facchin F, et al. An estimation of the number of cells in the human body. Ann Hum Biol. 40(6):463-471.
  2. Wilhelm M, Schlegl J, Hahne H, et al. Mass-spectrometry-based draft of the human proteome. Nature. 2014;509(7502):582-587.
  3. Long M, Tao S, Rojo de la Vega M, et al. Nrf2-dependent suppression of azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium-induced colon carcinogenesis by the cinnamon-derived dietary factor cinnamaldehyde. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2015;8(5):444-454.
  4. Kara M, Uslu S, Demirci F, Temel HE, Baydemir C. Supplemental carvacrol can reduce the severity of inflammation by influencing the production of mediators of inflammation. Inflammation. 2015;38(3):1020-1027. 

Peppermint & Ion Channels

  1. Oz M, Lozon Y, Sultan A, Yang K-HS, Galadari S. Effects of monoterpenes on ion channels of excitable cells. Pharmacol Ther. 2015;152:83-97.
  2. Pan R, Tian Y, Gao R, et al. Central mechanisms of menthol-induced analgesia. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2012;343(3):661-672. 

Is it Safe to Ingest Essential Oils?

  1. Coelho-de-Souza AN, Lahlou S, Barreto JEF, et al. Essential oil of Croton zehntneri and its major constituent anethole display gastroprotective effect by increasing the surface mucous layer. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2013;27(3):288-298.
  2. Guesmi F, Ben Ali M, Barkaoui T, et al. Effects of Thymus hirtus sp. algeriensis Boiss. et Reut. (Lamiaceae) essential oil on healing gastric ulcers according to sex. Lipids Health Dis. 2014;13(1):138.
  3. Moraes TM, Kushima H, Moleiro FC, et al. Effects of limonene and essential oil from Citrus aurantium on gastric mucosa: role of prostaglandins and gastric mucus secretion. Chem Biol Interact. 2009;180(3):499-505.
  4. Moraes TM, Rozza AL, Kushima H, Pellizzon CH, Rocha LRM, Hiruma-Lima CA. Healing actions of essential oils from Citrus aurantium and d-limonene in the gastric mucosa: the roles of VEGF, PCNA, and COX-2 in cell proliferation. J Med Food. 2013;16(12):1162-1167.
  5. Santin JR, Lemos M, Klein-Júnior LC, et al. Gastroprotective activity of essential oil of the Syzygium aromaticum and its major component eugenol in different animal models. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2011;383(2):149-158.
  6. Takayama C, de-Faria FM, de Almeida ACA, et al. Gastroprotective and ulcer healing effects of essential oil from Hyptis spicigera Lam. (Lamiaceae). J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;135(1):147-155. 

A Fresh Look at Dilution 

  1. Marieb E, Hoehn K. Human Anatomy & Physiology. Boston: Pearson; 2013.
  2. Sapra B, Jain S, Tiwary AK. Percutaneous permeation enhancement by terpenes: mechanistic view. AAPS J. 2008;10(1):120-132.
  3. Cal K, Kupiec K, Sznitowska M. Effect of physicochemical properties of cyclic terpenes on their ex vivo skin absorption and elimination kinetics. J Dermatol Sci. 2006;41(2):137-142.
  4. Cal K, Sopala M. Tremendous ex vivo child skin absorption and permeation of eucalyptol. J Dermatol Sci. 2008;52(2):139-140.
  5. Cal K. How does the type of vehicle influence the in vitro skin absorption and elimination kinetics of terpenes? Arch Dermatol Res.2006;297(7):311-315.
  6. Jacobi U, Taube H, Schäfer UF, Sterry W, Lademann J. Comparison of four different in vitro systems to study the reservoir capacity of the stratum corneum. J Control Release. 2005;103(1):61-71.
  7. Pelchrzim R v., Weigmann H-J, Schaefer H, et al. Determination of the formation of the stratum corneum reservoir for two different corticosteroid formulations using tape stripping combined with UV/VIS spectroscopy. Bestimmung der Ausbildung des Reservoirs innerhalb des Stratum corneum fur zwei unterschi. J der Dtsch Dermatologischen Gesellschaft. 2004;2(11):914-919.
  8. Rawlings A V., Harding CR. Moisturization and skin barrier function. Dermatol Ther. 2004;17(s1):43-48. 

Unique Character of Essential Oils

  1. Baldinger P, Höflich AS, Mitterhauser M, et al. Effects of Silexan on the serotonin-1A receptor and microstructure of the human brain: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over study with molecular and structural neuroimaging. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol.2015;18(4).
  2. Gostner JM, Ganzera M, Becker K, et al. Lavender oil suppresses indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity in human PBMC. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014;14:503.
  3. Sebai H, Selmi S, Rtibi K, Gharbi N, Sakly M. Protective Effect of Lavandula stoechas and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils against reproductive damage and oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. J Med Food. 2015;18(2):241-249.
  4. Dawidowicz AL, Olszowy M. Does antioxidant properties of the main component of essential oil reflect its antioxidant properties? The comparison of antioxidant properties of essential oils and their main components. Nat Prod Res. 2014;(801):1-12. 

Internal Use of Essential Oils

  1. Zhao H, Xie Y, Yang Q, et al. Pharmacokinetic study of cinnamaldehyde in rats by GC-MS after oral and intravenous administration. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2014;89:150-157.
  2. Chang W, Han L, Huang H, et al. Simultaneous determination of four volatile compounds in rat plasma after oral administration of Shexiang Baoxin Pill (SBP) by HS-SPDE-GC–MS/MS and its application to pharmacokinetic studies. J Chromatogr B. 2014;963:47-53.
  3. D’Alessio P a., Ostan R, Bisson JF, Schulzke JD, Ursini M V., Béné MC. Oral administration of d-Limonene controls inflammation in rat colitis and displays anti-inflammatory properties as diet supplementation in humans. Life Sci. 2013;92:1151-1156.
  4. Crowell PL. Symposium on Phytochemicals : Biochemistry and Physiology Prevention and Therapy of Cancer by Dietary Monoterpenes 1. Exp Biol. 1999:775-778.
  5. Liu JH, Chen GH, Yeh HZ, Huang CK, Poon SK. Enteric-coated peppermint-oil capsules in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective, randomized trial. J Gastroenterol. 1997;32:765-768.
  6. Talpur N, Echard B, Ingram C, Bagchi D, Preuss H. Effects of a novel formulation of essential oils on glucose-insulin metabolism in diabetic and hypertensive rats: a pilot study. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2005;7:193-199.
  7. Jager W. Metabolism of terpenoids in animal models and humans. In: Baser KHC, Buchbauer G, eds. Handbook of Essential Oils: Science, Technology, and Applications. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Taylor & Francis Group; 2010:209-234.
  8. 182.20 Essential Oils, Oleoresins (Solvent-Free), and Natural Extractives (Including Distillates).United States of America: 42 FR 14640, Mar. 15, 1977, unless otherwise noted; 2015. http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?rgn=div5&node=21:3.0.1.1.13#se21.3.182_120. 

Mucous Membranes and Essential Oils 

  1. Čapkovičová A, Maková Z, Piešová E, Alves A, Faix Š, Faixová Z. Evaluation of the effects of Salvia officinalis essential oil on plasma biochemistry, gut mucus and quantity of acidic and neutral mucins in the chicken gut. Acta Vet Brno. 2014;64(1):138-148.
  2. Cone RA. Barrier properties of mucus. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2009;61(2):75-85.
  3. Sigurdsson HH, Kirch J, Lehr C-M. Mucus as a barrier to lipophilic drugs. Int J Pharm. 2013;453(1):56-64.
  4. Marieb E, Hoehn K. Human Anatomy & Physiology. Boston: Pearson; 2013.
  5. Coelho-de-Souza AN, Lahlou S, Barreto JEF, et al. Essential oil of Croton zehntneri and its major constituent anethole display gastroprotective effect by increasing the surface mucous layer. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2013;27(3):288-298.
  6. Moraes TM, Kushima H, Moleiro FC, et al. Effects of limonene and essential oil from Citrus aurantium on gastric mucosa: role of prostaglandins and gastric mucus secretion. Chem Biol Interact. 2009;180(3):499-505.
  7. Moraes TM, Rozza AL, Kushima H, Pellizzon CH, Rocha LRM, Hiruma-Lima CA. Healing actions of essential oils from Citrus aurantium and d-limonene in the gastric mucosa: the roles of VEGF, PCNA, and COX-2 in cell proliferation. J Med Food. 2013;16(12):1162-1167.
  8. Voynow JA, Rubin BK. Mucins, mucus, and sputum. Chest. 2009;135(2):505-512.
  9. Ueno-Iio T, Shibakura M, Yokota K, et al. Lavender essential oil inhalation suppresses allergic airway inflammation and mucous cell hyperplasia in a murine model of asthma. Life Sci. 2014;108(2):109-115.
  10. Sudhoff H, Klenke C, Greiner JFW, et al. 1,8-Cineol Reduces Mucus-Production in a Novel Human Ex Vivo Model of Late Rhinosinusitis. PLoS One. 2015;10(7):e0133040. 

Bioactivity of Essential Oils

  1. Bakkali F, Averbeck S, Averbeck D, Idaomar M. Biological effects of essential oils - A review. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46:446-475.
  2. Dwivedi GR, Gupta S, Roy S, et al. Tricyclic sesquiterpenes from Vetiveria zizanoides (L.) Nash as antimycobacterial agents. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2013;82(5):587-594.
  3. Wang K, Li Z, Chen Y, Su C. The Pharmacokinetics of a Novel Anti-tumor Agent, b -Elemene, in Sprague-Dawley Rats. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2005;26:301-307.
  4. Wu XS, Xie T, Lin J, et al. An investigation of the ability of elemene to pass through the blood-brain barrier and its effect on brain carcinomas. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2009;61:1653-1656.   

Essential Oil Metabolism

  1. Levin J-O, Erikssom K, Falk A, Lof A. Renal elimination of verbenols in man following experimentsl alpha-pinene inhalation exposure. Int Arch Occup Env Heal. 1992;63:571-573.
  2. Jager W. Metabolism of terpenoids in animal models and humans. In: Baser KHC, Buchbauer G, eds. Handbook of Essential Oils: Science, Technology, and Applications. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Taylor & Francis Group; 2010:209-234.
  3. Chow HHS, Salazar D, Hakim I a. Pharmacokinetics of perillic acid in humans after a single dose administration of a citrus preparation rich in d-Limonene content. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2002;11(November):1472-1476.
  4. Zhang Z, Chen H, Chan KK, Budd T, Ganapathi R. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of perillyl alcohol and metabolites in plasma. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 1999;728(1):85-95.
  5. Gelb MH, Tamanoi F, Yokoyama K, Ghomashchi F, Esson K, Gould MN. The inhibition of protein prenyltransferases by oxygenated metabolites of limonene and perillyl alcohol. Cancer Lett. 1995;91(2):169-175.
  6. Fukumoto S, Sawasaki E, Okuyama S, Miyake Y, Yokogoshi H. Flavor components of monoterpenes in citrus essential oils enhance the release of monoamines from rat brain slices. Nutr Neurosci. 2011;9(April 2006):73-80.
  7. Bickers D, Calow P, Greim H, et al. A toxicologic and dermatologic assessment of linalool and related esters when used as fragrance ingredients. Food Chem Toxicol. 2003;41(7):919-942.
  8. Kang P, Seol GH. Linalool elicits vasorelaxation of mouse aortae through activation of guanylyl cyclase and K(+) channels. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2015;67(5):714-719.
  9. Koto R, Imamura M, Watanabe C, et al. Linalyl acetate as a major ingredient of lavender essential oil relaxes the rabbit vascular smooth muscle through dephosphorylation of myosin light chain. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2006;48(1):850-856. 

Essential Oil Topical Application: To Dilute or Not to Dilute

  1. Jager W, Buchbauer G, Jirovetz L, Fritzer M. Percutaneous-Absorption Of Lavender Oil From A Massage Oil. J Soc Cosmet Chem.43(1):49-54.
  2. Bronaugh RL, Wester RC, Bucks D, Maibach HI, Sarason R. In vivo percutaneous absorption of fragrance ingredients in rhesus monkeys and humans. Food Chem Toxicol. 1990;28(5):369-373.
  3. Price S, Price L, eds. Aromatherapy for Health Professionals. 4th ed. Churchill Livingston Elsevier; 2012.

 

Weight Loss & Wellness
 
 
Omega-3 Fatty Acids from Plants
Amjad Khan W, Chun-Mei H, Khan N, et al. Bioengineered Plants Can Be a Useful Source of Omega-3 Fatty Acids. Biomed Res Int. 2017:7348919. doi: 10.1155/2017/7348919
 

The Key to Strength May Not Be Your Muscles

  1. Morton R, et al. Neither load nor systemic hormones determine resistance training-mediated hypertrophy or strength gains in resistance-trained young men. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2016. DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00154.2016.
  2. Jenkins, N, et al. Greater Neural Adaptations following High- vs. Low-Load Resistance Training. Frontiers in Physiology. 2017. DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2017.00331

Skin Care Routine

  1. Irkin R, Korukluoglu M. Growth inhibition of pathogenic bacteria and some yeasts by selected essential oils and survival of L. monocytogenes and C. albicans in apple-carrot juice. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2009;6(3):387-394.
  2. Matiz G, Osorio MR, Camacho F, Atencia M, Herazo J. Effectiveness of antimicrobial formulations for acne based on orange (Citrus sinensis) and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L) essential oils. Biomedica. 2012;32(1):125-133.
  3. Hwang E, Ngo HTT, Park B et al. Myrcene, An Aromatic Volative Compound, Ameliorates Human Skin Extrinsic Aging via Regulation of MMPs Production. Am J Chin Med. 2017 Jun 28:1-12.
  4. Muthaiyan A, Martin EM, Natesan S, Crandall PG, Wilkinson BJ, Ricke SC. Antimicrobial Effect and Mode of Action of Terpeneless Cold Pressed Valencia Orange Essential Oil on Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2012; 112(5):1020-1033.
  5. Li H, Ge Y, Luo Z et al. Evaluation of the chemical composition, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activites of distillate and residue fractions of sweet basil essential oil. J Food Sci Technol. 2017 Jun;54(7):1882-1890.
  6. Dennen M, Lio P. Smoothing Out Our Understanding of Moisturizers. Practical Dermatology. 2017 Jun 14(6):68-72.
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  8. Van Vuuren SF, Suliman S, Viljoen AM. The antimicrobial activity of four commercial essential oils in combination with conventional antimicrobials. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2009;28(4):440-446.
  9. Enshaieh S, Jooya A, Siadat AH, Iraji F. The efficacy of 5% topical tea tree oil gel in mild to moderate acne vulgaris: a randomized, double blind placebo controlled study. Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology. 2007;73:22-25.
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Gut Microbiome Health 

  1. Shreiner A, et al. The gut microbiome in health and in disease. Current Opinions in Gaastroenterology. 2015;31(1):69-75.
  2. Kumar M, et al. Human gut microbiota and healthy aging: Recent developments and future prospective. Nutrition and Healthy Aging. 2016;4(1):3-16.
  3. Mayer E, et al. Gut Microbes and the brain: Paradigm shift and neuroscience. The Journal of Neuroscience. 2014; 34(46):15490-15496.
  4. Clarke S, et al. The gut microbiota and its relationship to diet and obesity. Gut Microbes. 2012;3(3):186-202.
  5. Hjorth M, et al. Pre-treatment microbial Prevotella-to-Bacteroides ratio, determines body fat loss success during a 6-month randomized controlled diet intervention. International Journal of Obesity (London). 2017. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2017.220.
 

Ancestry and Your Health
Ye K, et al. Dietary adaptation of FADS genes in Europe varied across time and geography. Nature Ecology & Evolution. 2017. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/111229.
 
Cinnamon and Metabolism

  1. Brennemen M, Mahfouz T, and Stockert A. Cooperative binding of cinnamon polyphenols as activators of Sirtuin-1 protein in the insulin signaling pathway. The FASEB Journal. 2017;31(1):761.25.
  2. Hoehn A and Stockert A. The effects of Cinnamomum cassia on blood glucose values are greater than those of dietary changes alone. Nutrition and Metabolic Insights. 2012;5:77-83. 

Magnesium and Bone Health

  1. Chu, W. Magnesium may promote bone health and prevent fractures: Study. European Journal of Epidemiology. 2017. DOI: 10.1007/s10654-017-0242-2.
  2. Sojka, JE, Weaver CM. Magnesium supplementation and osteoporosis. PubMed. 1995; 53(3):71-4.

Gym Membership

  1. Statistic Brain. Gym membership statistics. 2016. Retrieved from: http://www.statisticbrain.com/gym-membership-statistics/.
  2. Schroeder E, et al. Associations of Health Club Membership with physical activity and cardiovascular health. PLOS ONE. 2017;12(1): e0170471.

Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Obesity
Simopoulos A. An increase in the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio increases the risk for obesity. Nutrients. 2016;8(128). doi:10.3390/nu8030128

Morning Workout Appetite Cues
Hanlon B, Larson M, Bailey B, LeCheminant J. Neural response to pictures of food after exercise in normal-weight and obese women. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2012;44(10):1864-1870.


Smart, but Risky, Phones

Rebold M, et al. The impact of different cell phone functions and their effects on postural stability. Performance Enhancement & Health. 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.peh.2016.11.004.

Overeating "Healthy" Foods
Faulkner G, et al. Perceived 'healthiness' of foods can influence consumers' estimations of energy density and appropriate portion size. International Journal of Obesity. 2014;38(1):106-112.

Eating Out, Eating More

  1. Jamrisko M. Americans spend more on dining out than groceries for first time ever. Bloomberg. April 14, 2015. Retrieved from: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-04-14/americans-spending-on-dining-out-just-overtook-grocery-sales-for-the-first-time-ever
  2. Nguyen B, Powell L. The impact of restaurant consumption among U.S. adults: effects on energy and nutrient intakes. Public Health Nutrition. 2014; 17(11):2445-2452.

Filling Up with H2O
Parretti H, et al. Efficacy of water preloading before main meals as a strategy for weight loss in primary care patients with obesity: RCT. Obesity. 2015; 23(9):1785-1791.

Impulsivity and BMI
Filbey F, Yezhuvath U. A multimodal study of impulsivity and body weight: Integrating behavioral, cognitive, and neuroimaging approaches. Obesity. 2017;25(1):147-154.

Eat the Rainbow
Otto M, Padhye N, Bertoni A, Jacobs D, Mozaffarian D. Everything in moderation – Dietary diversity and quality, central obesity and risk of diabetes. PLOS ONE. 2015. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141341.

High Sugar Diet & Lifespan

  1. Dobson A, et al. Nutritional programming of lifespan by FOXO inhibition on sugar diets. Cell Reports. 2017;18:299-306
  2. Wilcox B, et al. FOXO3A genotype is strongly associated with human longevity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2008;106(8): 2700–5. 

Sugary Sickness
Sanguesa G, et al. Type of supplemented simple sugar, not merely calorie intake, determines adverse effects on metabolism and aortic function in female rats. American Journal of Physiology – Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 2016. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00339.2016.

Waking up with Light
Cheung I, et al. Morning and evening blue-enriched light exposure alters metabolic function in normal weight adults. PLOS ONE. 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0155601.

Exercise Is Not a Cure-All
Brown R. et al. Secular differences in the association between caloric intake, macronutrient intake, and physical activity with obesity. Obesity Research & Clinical Practice. 2015. DOI: 10.1016/j.orcp.2015.08.007. 

Sleep Patterns and Homeostatic Hunger Mechanisms

  1. Lundahl A, Nelson T. Sleep and food intake: A multisystem review of mechanisms in children and adults. Journal of Health Psychology. 2015;20(6):794-805.
  2. Schussler P, et al. Peptide hormones regulating appetite—focus on neuroimaging studies in humans. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews. 2006;27(2):104-112.

Support vs. Competition

  1. Foster D, Linehan C, Kirman S, Lawson G, James G. Motivating physical activity at work: using persuasive social media for competitive step counting. ACM. 2010: 111-16.
  2. Zhang J, et al. Support or competition? How online social networks increase physical activity: A randomized controlled trial. Preventive Medicine Reports. 2016;4:453-458.

Nutrient-Dense Foods and Lifespan

  1. Lee C, Longbo V. Dietary restriction with and without caloric restriction for healthy aging. F100 Research. 2016. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.7136.1.
  2. Mattison J, et al. Caloric restriction improves health and survival of rhesus monkeys. Nature Communications. 2017. doi:10.1038/ncomms14063.

Building Muscle in Old Age
Walker S, Hakkinen K. Similar increases in strength after short-term resistance training due to different neuromuscular adaptations in young and older men. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2014; 28(11):3041-3048.

Mindful Meditation
Hoge E, et al. The effect of mindfulness meditation training on biological acute stress responses in generalized anxiety disorder. Psychiatry Research. 2017. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2017.01.006.

Don't Forget to Eat Your Quercetin and Galangin

  1. Liu X, et al. Dietary total flavonoids intake and risk of mortality from all causes and cardiovascular disease in the general population: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. DOI: 10.1002/mnfr.201601003.
  2. Liu y, et al., Dietary flavonoids intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Clinical Nutrition. 2014; 33:59-63.
  3. Gharib H, et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, American College of Endocrinology, and Associazione Medici Endocrinologi Medical Guidelines for Clinical Practice for the Diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Nodules - 2016 Update. Endocrine Practice. 2016: 22:622-639.

Music and Exercise

  1. Hasan M, Bakhtiyar T, Azhdar A. The effects of music on the perceived exertion rate and performance of trained and untrained individuals during progressive exercise. Facta universitatis - series: Physical Education and Sport. 2008; 6(1):67-74.
  2. Kapingst A, et al. Effect of music components on exercise. Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation. 2010;30:272.
  3. Prieboy M. Effects of auditory input on perceived exertion during cycling. Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation. 2009; 29(4);262-274.
  4. Atan T. Effect of music on anaerobic exercise performance. Biology of Sport.2013; 30(1):35-39.

Exercise and Biological Aging
Shadyab A, et al. Associations of accelerometer – measured and self-reported sedentary time with leukocyte telomere length in older women. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2017: 172-184. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kww196.
 
The Dangers of Yo-Yo Dieting
Rasla, S. Yo-yo dieting dangerous even if not overweight. American Heart Association Scientific Sessions. 2016. Retrieved from: http://news.heart.org/scientific-sessions-2016-summary/.

Exercise and Laughter

Greene C, Morgan J, Traywick L, Mingo C. Evaluation of a laughter-based exercise on health and self-efficacy for exercise. The Gerontologist. 2016. DOI: 10.1093/geront/gnw105.

Exercise May Keep Your Brain Young 
Zhu, W, et al. Objectively measured physical activity and cognitive function in older adults. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2017;49(1):47-53.

Weighing in on Health
Matheson E, King D, Everett C. Healthy lifestyle habits and mortality in overweight and obese individuals. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine. 2012; 25(1):9-15.

Core Strength 101

  1. Martuscello J, Nuzzo J, Ashley C, Campbell B, Orriola J, Mayer J. Systematic review of core muscle activity during physical fitness exercises. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2013; 27(6):1684-1698.
  2. Escamilla R. et al. Core muscle activation during swiss ball and traditional abdominal exercises. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 2010;40:265-276.
  3. Schoenfeld B, Contreras B, Tiryaki-Sonmez R, Fontana F. An electromyographic comparison of a modified version of the plank with a long lever and posterior tilt versus the traditional plank exercise. Sports Biomechanics. 2014;13(3):296-306.
  4. Calatayud J, et al. Muscle activation during push-ups with different suspension training systems. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine. 2014; 13(3):502-510.
  5. Youdas J, et al. Comparison of muscle-activation patterns during the conventional push-up and perfect pushup™ exercises. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2010;24:3352-3362. 

Exhaling Fat

  1. Meerman R, Brown A. When somebody loses weight, where does the fat go? BMJ. 2014; 349:g7257.
  2. Ainsworth B, et al. Compendium of physical activities: a second update of codes and MET values. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43:1575-81.

Dieting May Improve Mood and Overall Quality of Life
Marti C, Bhapkar M, Pittas A. Effect of calorie restriction on mood, quality of life, and sexual function in healthy nonobese adults. JAMA Intern Med. 2016; 176(6):743-752 

Slim by Design: Designing a Healthy Food Environment
Wansink B, Hanks A, Kaipainen K. Slim by design: Kitchen counter correlates of obesity. Health Education Behavior. 2016; 43(5):552-558. 

The Hormone Leptin and Weight Loss

  1. Maffei M. Leptin levels in human and rodent: Measurement of plasma leptin and ob RNA in obese and weight-reduced subjects. Nature Medicine. 1995; 1:1155-1161.
  2. Woods s. The control of food intake: Behavioral versus molecular perspectives. Cellular Metabolism. 2009; 9(6): 489-498.
  3. Jung C, Kim M. Molecular mechanism of central leptin resistance in obesity. Arch Pharm Res. 2013; 36(2):201-207.
  4. Wing R, Sinha M, Considine R, Lang W, Caro J. Relationship between weight loss maintenance and changes in serum leptin levels. Horm Metab Res. 1996; 28(12): 698-703.
  5. Chu N, Stampfer M, Spiegelman D, Rifai N, Hotamisligil G, Rimm E. Dietary and lifestyle factors in relation to plasma leptin concentrations among normal weight and overweight men. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2001; 25(1): 106-114. 

Dieting and Weight Gain
Lowe M, Doshi S, Katterman S, Feig M. Dieting and restrained eating as prospective predictors of weight gain. Frontiers in Psychology. 2013;4:577.

Cross-Training and Carbohydrate Intake
Escobar K, Morales J, Vandusseldorp T. The effect of a moderately low and high carbohydrate intake on crossfit performance. International Journal of Exercise Science. 2016;9(3):460-470. 

Health Impacts of Work Commuting
Hoehner C, Barlow C, Allen P, Schootman M. Commuting distance, cardiorespiratory fitness, and metabolic risk. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2013; 42(6):571-578.

Exercising for Pleasure

Zenko Z, Ekkekakis P, Ariely D. Can you have vigorous exercise and enjoy it too? Ramping intensity down increases postexercise, remembered, and forecasted pleasure. Journal of Sport & Exercise Physiology. 2016;38(2):149-159.

Breakfast

  1. Mayyasi A. How breakfast became a thing. Priceonomics. May 9, 2016. Retrieved from https://priceonomics.com/how-breakfast-became-a-thing
  2. Dhurandhar E, et al. The effectiveness of breakfast recommendations on weight loss: a randomized controlled trial. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2014;104(4). doi: 10.3945/ajcn.114.089573.
  3. Levitsky D, Pacanowski C. Effect of skipping breakfast on subsequent energy intake. Physiology & Behavior. 2013;119;9-16.
  4. Betts J, Richardson J, Chowdhury E, Holman G, Tsintzas K, Thompson D. The causal role of breakfast in energy balance and health: a randomized controlled trial in lean adults. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2014. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.114.083402.

Sleep Deprivation and Junk Food
Greer S, Goldstein A, Walker M. The impact of sleep deprivation on food desire in the human brain. Nature Communications. 2013; 4:2259. doi:10.1038/ncomms3259

Planning for Weight Management Success 

  1. Swinburn B, Egger G, Raza F. Dissecting obesogenic environments: the development and application of a framework for identifying and prioritizing environmental interventions for obesity. Prev Med. 1999;29:563–70.
  2. Louzada M, et al. Consumption of ultra-processed foods and obesity in Brazilian adolescents and adults. Prev Med. 2015;81:9-15.
  3. Fruh S, et al. Meal-planning practices with individuals in health disparity zip codes. J Nurse Pract. 2013;9(6):344-349.
  4. Hollis J, et al. Weight loss during the intensive intervention phase of weight-loss maintenance trial. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2008;35(2):118-126.
  5. Deliens T, Clarys P, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Deforche B. Determinants of eating behaviour in university students: a qualitative study using focus group discussions. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:53.
  6. Sumithran P. Long-term persistence of hormonal adaptations to weight loss. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2011;365:1597-1604.
  7. King A, et al. Behavoral impacts of sequentially versus simultaneously delivered dietary plus physical activity interventions: The CALM Trial. Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 2013; 46(2):157-168.

Sleep: Lavender & L-Theanine 

  1. Chong Y, Fryar C, Gu Q. Prescription sleep aid use among adults: United States, 2005-2010. NCHS Data Brief. August 2013; 127. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db127.pdf
  2. Afshar M, et al. Lavender fragrance essential oil and the quality of sleep in postpartum women. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2015; 17(4):e25880.
  3. Lee S. Effects of aroma inhalation on fatigue and sleep quality of postpartum mothers. Women Heath Nurs. 2004; 10(3):235-243.
  4. Hirokawa K, Nishimoto T, Taniguchi T. The effects of lavender aroma on sleep quality in healthy Japanese students. Percept Mot Skills. 2012; 114(1):111-122.
  5. Field T, et al. Lavender bath oil reduces stress and crying and enhances sleep in very young infants. Early Human Development. 2008; 84(6):339-401.
  6. Smith A, Halcon L, Savik K, Reis R. Effect of lavender and sleep hygiene on self-reported sleep issues: A randomized controlled trial. J Am Coll Nutri. 2015; 34(5):436-47.
  7. Schuwald A, Noldner M, Wilmes T, Klugbauer N, Leuner K, Muller W. Lavender oil-potent anxiolytic properties via modulation voltage dependent calcium channels. PLoS One. 2013; 8(4):e59998.
  8. Dimpfel W, Pischel I, Lehnfeld R. Effects of lozenge containing lavender oil, extracts from hops, lemon balm and oat on electrical brain activity in volunteers. Eur. J. Med. Res. 2004; 9(9):423-431.
  9. Ghelardini C, Galeotti N, Salvatore G, Mazzanti G. Local anasthetic activity of the essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia. Planta Med.1999; 65(8):700-703.
  10. Barrett J, Tracy D, Giaroli G. To sleep or not to sleep: a systematic review of the literature of pharmacological treatments of insomnia in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2013; 23(10):640-7.
  11. Lyon M, Kapoor M, Juneja L. The effects of L-theanine on objective sleep quality in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Altern Med Rev. 2011; 16(4):348-54.
  12. Ota M, et al. Effect of L-theanine on glutamatergic functions in patients with schizophrenia. Acta Neuropsychiatr. 2015; 27(5):291-6.
  13. Yokogoshi H, Kobayashi M, Mochizuki M, Terashima T. Effects of theanine, r-glutamylethylamide, on brain monoamines and striatal dopamine release in conscious rats. Neurochem Res. 1998; 23(5):667-73.

Exercise and Stress Resilience

  1. Dum R, Levinthal D, Strick P. Motor, cognitive, and affective areas of the cerebral cortex influence the adrenal medulla. PNAS. 2016; 113(35):9922-9927.
  2. Hamblin J. Why one neuroscientist started blasting his core. The Atlantic. 2016. Accessed September 18, 2016.
  3. Childs E, de Wit H. Regular exercise is associated with emotional resilience to acute stress in healthy adults. Front Physiol. 2014; 5:161.
  4. Nakamura A, Fujiwara S, Matsumoto I, et al. Stress repression in restrained rats by (R)-(-)-linalool inhalation and gene expression profiling of their whole blood cells. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2009; 57(12):5480-5485.
  5. American Heart Association recommendations for physical activity in adults. American Heart Association. Accessed September 18, 2016.

Too Much of a Good Thing? When "Healthy" Nutritional Habits Backfire
Du Toit G, Roberts G, Sayre PH, et al. Randomized Trial of Peanut Consumption in Infants at Risk for Peanut Allergy. N Engl J Med.2015:803-813. 

How to Live Forever
Ristow M, Schmeisser S. Extending life span by increasing oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011; 51(2):327-336.

The Chemicals Hiding in Your Fast Food
Zota A, Phillips C, and Mitro S. Recent fast food consumption and bisphenol A and phthalates exposure among the U.S. population in NHANES, 2003-2010. Environ Health Perspect. 2016.

The Importance of Core Strength in Aging
Granacher U, Golhofer A, et al. The importance of trunk muscle strength for balance, functional performance, and fall prevention in seniors: a systematic review. Sports Med. 2013; 43(7):627-41.

Prenatal Cravings
Orloff N & Hormes J. Pickles and ice cream! Food cravings in pregnancy: hypothesis, preliminary evidence, and directions for future research. Front Psych. 2014; 5(1076):1-39.

Green Exercise

  1. Gladwell V, Brown D, Wood C, Sandercock G, Barton J. The great outdoors: how a green exercise environment can benefit all. Extrem Physiol Med. 2013; 2:3.
  2. Bowler D, Buyung-Ali L, Knight T, Pullin A. A systematic review of evidence for the added benefits to health of exposure to natural environments. BMC Publ Health. 2010; 10:456.
  3. Pretty J, Peacock J, Sellens M, Griffin M. The mental and physical outcomes of green exercise. Int J Environ Health Res. 2005; 15(5):319-337.
  4. Moyer A, Rodin J, Grilo C, Cummings N, Larson L, Rebuffé-Scrive M. Stress-induces cortisol response and fat distribution in women. Obesity Res. 1994; 2(3);255-262.
  5. Thompson Coon J, Boddy K, Stein K, Whear R, Barton J, Depledge MH. Does participating in physical activity in outdoor natural environments have a greater effect on physical and mental wellbeing than physical activity indoors? A systematic review. Environ Sci Tech. 2011; 45(5): 1761-1772. 

Junk Food and Bloog Sugar Regulation

  1. Boyle JP, Thompson TJ, Gregg EW, Barker LE, Williamson DF. Projection of the year 2050 burden of diabetes in the US adult population: dynamic modeling of incidence, mortality, and prediabetes prevalance. Popul Health Metr. 2010; 8:29.
  2. Chichger H, Cleasby ME, Srai SK, Unwin RJ, Debnam ES, Marks J. Experimental type II diabetes and related models of impaired glucouse metabolism differentially regulate glucose transporters at the proximal tubule brush border membrane. Exp Physiol. 2016;101(6):731-742.

Sugary Drinks and Diabetes
Imamura F, O'Connor L, Ye Z, et al. Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice and incidence of type 2 diabetes: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimation of population attributable fraction. Br J Sports Med. 2016; 50(8); 496-504.

Women and Resistance Training

  1. Schmitz K, et al. Strength training and adiposity in premenopausal women: Strong, Healthy, and Empowered study. American Society for Clinical Nutrition. 2007; 86(3): 566-572.
  2. Mayer F, et al. The intensity and effects of strength training in the elderly. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2011; 108(21): 359-364.
  3. Melov S, Tarnopolsky MA, Beckman K, Felkey K, and Hubbard A. Resistance Exercise Reverses Aging in Human Skeletal Muscle. PLoS One. 2007; 2(5): e465.
  4. Kadi F. The effects of regular strength training on telomere length in human skeletal muscle. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2008; 40(1): 82-7.
  5. O'Connor P, Herring M, and Carvalho A. Mental health benefits of strength training in adults. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine. 2010; 4(5): 377-396.
  6. Anderson-Hanley C, Nimon J, and Westen S. Cognitive health benefits of strengthening exercise for community-dwelling older adults. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology. 2010; 32(9): 996-1001.
  7. van Prag H. Exercise and the brain; something to chew on. Trends in Neuroscience. 2009; 32(5): 283-290.

Sarcopenia: Anti-Aging Benefits of Strength Training

  1. Forbes G, Reina J. Adult lean body mass declines with age: some longitudinal observations. Metabolism. 1970; 19(9): 653-663.
  2. Mayer F, et al. The intensity and effects of strength training in the elderly. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2011; 108(21): 359-364.
  3. Melov S., Tarnopolsky M.A., Beckman K., Felkey K., and Hubbard A. Resistance Exercise Reverses Aging in Human Skeletal Muscle. PLoS ONE. 2007; 2(5): e465.
  4. Kadi F. The effects of regular strength training on telomere length in human skeletal muscle. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2008; 40(1): 82-7.
  5. Bolandzadeh N, et al. Resistance training and white matter lesion progression in older woman: Exploratory analysis of a 12-month randomized co ntrolled trial. Journal of the American Geriatric Society. 2015; 63(10): 2052-2060.
  6. Weinberg L, Hasni A, Duarte A. A single bout of resistance exercise can enhance episodic memory performance. Acta Psychologica. 2014; 153: 13-19. 

Working out Your Mental Muscles
O'Connor P, Herring M, and Carvalho A. Mental health benefits of strength training in adults. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine. 2010: 4(5): 377-396.

Running Barefoot
Alloway R, Alloway T, Magyari P, Floyd S. An exploratory study investigating the effects of barefoot running on working memory. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 2016: 122(2): 432.

Short Bursts of High-Intensity Exercise for Cardiovascular Health
Gillen JB, Martin BJ, MacInnis MJ, Skelly LE, Tarnopolsky MA, Gibala MJ. Twelve Weeks of Sprint Interval Training Improves Indices of Cardiometabolic Health Similar to Traditional Endurance Training despite a Five-Fold Lower Exercise Volume and Time Commitment. PLoS One. 2016; 11(4):e0154075.

Fructose and Omega-3s
Meng Q, Ying Z, Noble E, et al. Systems Nutrigenomics Reveals Brain Gene Networks Linking Metabolic and Brain Disorders. EBioMedicine. 2016.

The Unity of Yoga and Essential Oils

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  2. West J, Otte C, Geher K, et al. Effects of Hatha yoga and African dance on perceived stress, affect, and salivary cortisol. Ann Behav Med. 2004; 28:114-8.
  3. Pilkington K, Kirkwood G, Rampes H, et al. Yoga for Depression: The Research Evidence. J Affect Disord. 2005; 89:13-24.
  4. Selvamurthy W, Sridharan K, Ray US, et al. A new physiological approach to control essential hypertension. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1998; 42:205-13.
  5. McCaffrey R, Ruknui P, Hatthakit U, et al. The effects of yoga on hypertensive persons in Thailand. Holist Nurs Pract. 2005; 19:173-80.
  6. Desai R, Tailor A, Bhatt T. Effects of yoga on brain waves and structural activation: A review. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2015 May; 21(2):112-118.
  7. Chioca LR, Ferro MM, Baretta IP, et al. Anxiolytic-like effect of lavender essential oil inhalation in mice: Participation by not GABA/benzodiazepine neurotransmission. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013; 147(2):412-218.
  8. Lehrner J, Eckersberger C, Walla P, et al. Ambient odor of orange in a dental office reduces anxiety and improves mood in female patients. Physiology & Behavior. 2000; 71:83-86.
  9. Cho MY, Min ES, Hur MH, et al. Effects of aromatherapy on the anxiety, vital signs, and sleep quality of percutaneous coronary intervention patients in intensive care units. Evid Bsed Complement Alternat Med. 2013; 381.
  10. Setzer WN. Essential oils and anxiolytic aromatherapy. Nat Prod Commun. 2009; 4(9):1305-1316.
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  12. Moss M, Hewitt S, Moss L, et al. Modulation of cognitive performance and mood by aromas of peppermint and ylang-ylang. Int J Neurosci. 2008; 118(1):59-77.
  13. Juergens UR. Anti-inflammatory properties of the monoterpene 1,8-cineole: Current Evidence for co-medication in inflammatory airway diseases. Drus Res (Stuttg). 2014. 
     

Ultra-Processed Foods


Martínez Steele E, Baraldi LG, Louzada ML da C, Moubarac J-C, Mozaffarian D, Monteiro CA. Ultra-processed foods and added sugars in the US diet: evidence from a nationally representative cross-sectional study. BMJ Open. 2016;6(3):e009892.
 

The Science of Satiety

  1. Rolls BJ, Roe LS. Effect of the volume of liquid food infused intragastrically on satiety in women. Physiol Behav. 2002;76(4-5):623-631.
  2. Stenblom E-L, Montelius C, Erlandsson D, et al. Decreased Urge for Palatable Food after a Two-month Dietary Intervention with Green-plant Membranes in Overweight Women. Obes Weight Loss Ther. 2014;4(4).
  3. Duraffourd C, De Vadder F, Goncalves D, et al. Mu-opioid receptors and dietary protein stimulate a gut-brain neural circuitry limiting food intake. Cell. 2012;150(2):377-388.
  4. Van Wymelbeke V, Louis-Sylvestre J, Fantino M. Substrate oxidation and control of food intake in men after a fat-substitute meal compared with meals supplemented with an isoenergetic load of carbohydrate, long-chain triacylglycerols, or medium-chain triacylglycerols. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;74(5):620-630.
  5. Levitsky DA, Pacanowski CR. Effect of skipping breakfast on subsequent energy intake. Physiol Behav. 2013;119:9-16.
  6. Schoenfeld BJ, Aragon AA, Krieger JW. Effects of meal frequency on weight loss and body composition: a meta-analysis. Nutr Rev.2015;73(2):69-82. 

Microplex MVp™ Meets, Not Exceeds, Recommended Dietary Intakes

  1. Yetley EA. Multivitamin and multimineral dietary supplements: definitions, characterization, bioavailability, and drug interactions. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007;85(1):269S - 276.
  2. Gregory J. Case study: Folate bioavailability. J Nutr. 2001;131:1376S - 1382S.

 

Some of the studies in this bibliography could be considered improper product claims if not shared properly. Instead of sharing the individual studies in this bibliography, doTERRA Wellness Advocates should share the blog posts referring to these studies.


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