Glossary


 
  • Acetylcholine: An organic compound made of acetic acid and choline that acts as a neurotransmitter.
     
  • Adrenaline: Also called epinephrine; a hormone secreted by the adrenal glands that is involved in the body’s fight-or-flight response.
     
  • Aerobic: Requiring oxygen.
     
  • Alcohol: A functional group consisting of an oxygen and a hydrogen (-OH). The hydrogen is bound to the oxygen, which is bound to a carbon in the rest of the molecule.
     
  • Aldehyde: A functional group consisting of a carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (-CHO). The carbon is double bonded to the oxygen and single bonded to the hydrogen. The carbon is also attached to the rest of the molecule.
     
  • Amygdala: A region of the brain located in the temporal lobes. This area of the brain is involved in cognitive processes like memory and decision-making.
     
  • Antioxidant: A compound that inhibits the chain reaction of oxidation in cells by neutralizing free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS).
     
  • Apoptosis: The internally programmed process of cell death.
     
  • Attrition: Being worn down or weakened by continuous pressure.
     
  • Autophagy: A cellular process that degrades and recycles unnecessary cellular components to produce energy or make new components.
     
  • Bicyclic: Refers to a chemical structure containing two six-membered carbon rings.
     
  • Bioactive: Describes a compound or substance that has an effect on living matter.
     
  • Bioavailability: The portion of a treatment or supplement that is able to reach the circulatory system of the body and therefore have an active effect.
     
  • Biochemical Pathway: A series of chemical reactions that occur in the cell and lead to a certain outcome.
     
  • Biologically Multiplexed Activity Profiling (BioMAP®) Human Dermal Fibroblast System: A system comprised of three components: a cell type, stimuli to create an atypical tissue behavior, and a set of protein readouts. The system is designed to model the process of atypical tissue function in a reproducible way to examine the effects of a specific treatment on the cell type of interest.
     
  • Biomarker: A quantitative characteristic that can indicate state of health.
     
  • Cannabinoid Receptors: Protein units located throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems that are activated by endocannabinoids and plant cannabinoids.
     
  • Catalase: A common enzyme that decomposes hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen, protecting the cell from oxidative damage.
     
  • Cell Co-Culture: The growth of two or more cell lines together outside of their natural environment. For certain research applications, co-cultures are more useful than single or mono-cultures because they allow scientists to evaluate interactions between cell types.
     
  • Cell Turnover: The process by which older cells are shed and younger cells replace them, especially in skin cells.
     
  • Chemical Constituent: A component of a certain essential oil that makes up part of its chemical profile. Limonene, for example, is the main chemical constituent in Lemon essential oil.
     
  • Chemotype: A distinct difference in the chemical makeup that may not be distinguishable based on the appearance or anatomy of an organism.
     
  • Chiral: Describes a molecule that cannot be superimposed onto its mirror image. An asymmetrical carbon center is one of the features that causes chirality.
     
  • Chitin: A structural fiber for arthropods and fungi that is made up of smaller glucose subunits.
     
  • Chromosome: A tightly wound string of genetic material and protein that is found in the nucleus of the cell.
     
  • Cortisol: A steroid hormone that is involved in the body’s stress response as well as other bodily functions.
     
  • Cyclic: Refers to a chemical structure containing a six-membered carbon ring.
     
  • Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA): The genetic material of cells, made up of two strings of nucleotides structured into a double helix, or a paired double-strand. This code contains the genetic instructions that cells use to create other macromolecules that are important in the growth, reproduction, and function of living organisms.
     
  • Downregulation: The process in which a cell decreases the production of a certain cellular component. Cell receptors, proteins, and RNA can all be downregulated to reduce the sensitivity of the cell to various signals.
     
  • Ecosystem: A community made up of the living organisms and the nonliving components that inhabit an area.
     
  • Electrophysiology: An experimental method that evaluates neural activity by measuring the strength of electrical signals produced by an organ, like the heart, or even by a single nerve cell.
     
  • Embryogenesis: Describes the early stages of fetal development beginning when an egg cell is fertilized by a sperm cell.
     
  • Enantiomer: Describes two compounds that are mirror images of each other.
     
  • Endocannabinoids: Naturally produced neurotransmitters in the body that bind to cannabinoid receptors throughout the nervous system and play a role in regulating appetite, pain sensation, mood, and the pharmacological effects of cannabis.
     
  • Endocrine System: Refers to the glands throughout the body that secrete hormones into the blood.
     
  • Endogenous: A response or symptom that originates from within the organism as opposed to the external environment.
     
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA): A laboratory technique used to measure the presence or activity of a certain target, usually a protein or drug, using an antibody that is linked to an enzyme and color change to enable highly specific detection.
     
  • Equilibrium: A state of balance between opposing forces.
     
  • Ester: A functional group where the alcohol group (-OH) is replaced so that the oxygen is bonded to a carbon on both sides.
     
  • Ether: A functional group that is classified by an oxygen atom connected to two carbon groups.
     
  • Extracellular Matrix (ECM): The protein-rich scaffolding that makes up the non-cellular material of tissues.
     
  • Fibroblast: A type of cell that produces collagen and plays a crucial role in the skin’s wound healing process.
     
  • Functional Group: A specific set of atoms that provide a characteristic property of the whole molecule.
     
  • GABAA Receptor: A specific type of GABA receptor. This protein unit is embedded into the membrane of a cell that acts as a channel for the ion Cl-, which ultimately plays an inhibitory role in neural over-excitation. This receptor’s inhibitory role in neural activity is important for processes like sleep and relaxation.
     
  • Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Receptors: A class of receptor proteins associated with the central nervous system that respond to the GABA neurotransmitter.
     
  • Gastrointestinal Motility: The ability to move food from the mouth to the rectum by contracting smooth muscle tissue aided by bodily secretions in the digestive system.
     
  • Glutathione (GSH): A tripeptide with a low molecular weight that is involved in detoxification in most mammal tissues.
     
  • Glycolipid: A lipid that has a carbohydrate bonded to it, usually found in membranes.
     
  • Glycosylation: The process by which a carbohydrate is bonded to a lipid, forming a glycolipid.
     
  • Homeostasis: A state of relative balance across various associated physiological elements.
     
  • Hydrocarbon: An organic compound that consists solely of hydrogen and carbon.
     
  • Hydrophilic: Characterizing a substance that tends to dissolve easily in water.
     
  • Hydrophobic: Characterizing a substance that does not dissolve easily in water.
     
  • Hydroxyapatite: A mineral form of calcium that is the main non-carbon component of bone.
     
  • Immunomodulation: Refers to the regulation of the immune system and the various markers that contribute to the processes of the immune system.
     
  • In silico: Research conducted through the use of computer simulation.
     
  • In vitro: A research method involving the observation of cells or microorganisms outside their natural context, typically in a test tube or petri dish.
     
  • In vivo: A research method involving the observation of a process within a living organism.
     
  • Insulin Sensitivity/Resistance: A condition in which cells do not interact normally with insulin, increasing blood sugar. The increase in blood sugar results because insulin no longer effectively transports glucose out of the blood and into the cells.
     
  • Ion Channel: Specialized membrane proteins that control the influx or outflux of ions through the membrane.
     
  • Ion: Molecules with a net positive or negative electrical charge, such as Na+ (sodium ion) or Cl- (chloride ion).
     
  • Isometric: A type of exercise where the muscle is engaged but there is no flexion or extension of the joint.
     
  • Keratin: A dense protein that makes up most of the structure of hair and nails.
     
  • Ketone: A functional group where the carbon is double bonded to an oxygen and single bonded to two other carbons.
     
  • Lipophilic: Characterizing a substance that tends to dissolve easily in fats.
     
  • Lipophobic: Characterizing a substance that does not dissolve easily in fats.
     
  • Longitudinal study: A type of research design where the same parameters are observed or measured for the same group of subjects multiple times over the course of a certain amount of time. The study duration may be as short as a few weeks or extend over years or decades.
     
  • Lysate: A mixture of cell components and fluid after the cells have been lysed, or burst open for observation in a laboratory.
     
  • Metabolism: The chemical reactions that occur within the cell that living beings depend on to sustain life.
     
  • Microorganisms: A living organism that can only be seen through a microscope, specifically bacteria, viruses, and fungi.
     
  • microRNA: A small nucleic acid molecule that is involved in the gene expression process.
     
  • Monoamine: A class of neurotransmitters containing one amino group connected to an aromatic ring by two carbons.
     
  • Monoaminergic System: The network of neurons that rely on monoamine neurotransmitters to play a role in regulating processes like emotion and arousal.
     
  • Monoterpene: A class of terpenes characterized by a 10-carbon atom structure derived from two isoprene units and at least one double bond. Monoterpenes can have a straight-chain backbone or a single ring.
     
  • Mucin: A glycosylated protein with the unique ability to retain water and form a gel-like structure we often call mucus.
     
  • Nanoparticles: A compound between 1 and 100 nanometers (nm) in size.
     
  • Neurotransmission: A signal transduction process by which neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, are released by the presynaptic neuron and bind to receptors on the postsynaptic neuron.
     
  • Nucleotide: The individual subunits that make up nucleic acids like DNA and RNA.
     
  • Olfaction: The ability to detect airborne particles, otherwise known as the sense of smell.
     
  • Organoleptic: The properties of food or other substances that relate to the senses.
     
  • Osmeterial Gland: An organ that can be extended from the body of the swallowtail caterpillar, Papilio xuthus to emit a foul odor when the larvae feels threatened. The secretions contain various monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes.
     
  • Osteoblast: The individual cells that synthesize bone matter by producing dense, cross-linked collagen and hydroxyapatite that makes up the matrix of bone.
     
  • Oxidation: The loss of electrons, which is the result of regular chemical processes within the cell.
     
  • Oxide: Any chemical structure containing two elements, with at least one oxygen.
     
  • Panacea: A universal remedy.
     
  • Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): Includes all of the nerves throughout the body outside of the brain and spinal cord. The brain and spinal cord make up the central nervous system (CNS), which is the other component of the complete nervous system.
     
  • Pesticide: A substance used to kill, repel, or control pests that threaten the growth of cultivated plants.
     
  • Phenol: A functional group classified by a hydroxyl group (-OH) bonded to an aromatic ring.
     
  • Phenylpropene: A class of compounds characterized by a double bond outside of a benzene ring.
     
  • Photoaging: The process of skin aging that is accelerated by sun exposure.
     
  • Photosynthesis: The process by which plants convert sunlight into energy.
     
  • Polyphenol: A class of chemicals containing phenol groups (C6H5OH) in their structure that are found naturally in plants. Some examples include flavonoids, tannic acid, and phenolic acid.
     
  • Probiotic: Live bacteria that are supportive to the digestive system.
     
  • Proliferation: The process of reproduction in which a cell grows and then divides to produce two daughter cells.
     
  • Rapid Eye Movement (REM): A phase of sleep that is associated with random motion of the eyes as well as vivid dreaming.
     
  • Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS): Byproducts of normal cellular processes that may cause damage to cellular lipids, proteins, and DNA if there are not enough antioxidants present in the cell to neutralize them.
     
  • Ribonucleic Acid (RNA): A nucleic acid usually found in the cell as a single strand that is essential for the expression of genes.
     
  • RNA Microarray: A technique used to analyze large amounts of genetic material at once in order to measure the level of expression of certain genes.
     
  • Sarcopenia: Natural loss of muscle tissue as an organism ages.
     
  • Sesquiterpene: A class of terpenes that have a 15-carbon atom structure derived from three isoprene units. Sesquiterpenes are higher in molecular weight and are therefore less volatile than monoterpenes. They are also less prevalent in essential oils compared to monoterpenes.
     
  • Stereoisomer: Describes compounds that are almost exactly the same, except for the orientation of certain atoms in 3-D space.
     
  • Stoma: The pores that exist along the leaf of the plant that facilitate the exchange of gases.
     
  • Stratum Corneum: The outermost layer of the skin.
     
  • Synthase: A class of enzymes that synthesize larger molecules from smaller building blocks.
     
  • Telomerase: A protein that adds repetitive nucleotides to the end of the telomere, which is found at the end of DNA.
     
  • Telomere: A region at the end of a chromosome that is made up of repetitive nucleotide sequences and acts as a cap to protect the genetic material from being degraded.
     
  • Terpene Synthase: A specific type of enzyme that makes terpenes and terpenoids, compounds that constitute essential oils.
     
  • Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) Channel: A type of ion channel that is activated by physical stimuli, such as temperature and pressure.
     
  • Unsaturated: Refers to any organic compound containing a double or triple bond between carbons, therefore not containing the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms. (An organic compound with only single carbon bonds will have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms bound to carbon and is referred to as saturated.)
     
  • Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (VCAM-1): A protein in human skin cells that plays a role in normal inflammatory response.
     
  • Volatile: Describes a substance that converts to a gas at room temperature.
     
  • Xenoestrogen: A natural or synthetic compound that imitates estrogen.



Testing Methods

  • Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR): A laboratory research technique used to measure the spectrum of a type of electromagnetic radiation, called the infrared spectrum, from a solid, liquid, or gas substance. A mathematical process called the Fourier transform method is used by the machine to convert data into the spectrum that scientists can analyze.
     
  • Gas Chromatography (GC): A laboratory technique that scientists use to separate and analyze the components of a gas mixture.
     
  • Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS): A laboratory technique where the sample is atomized into its elemental form so that it’s mass can be measured and all elements in the sample can be quantified.
     
  • Mass Spectrometry (MS): A laboratory technique that organizes ions in a sample based on their individual mass.
     
  • Molecular Docking: A research tool used to classify the binding modes of a ligand and protein in 3-D space.

There are no customer reviews yet.

Average Rating Rate / Comment

How would you rate this post?

dōTERRA welcomes your thoughtful comments!

Comments are limited to 200 characters, reviewed for approval, and posted once approved.

200 characters remaining

Select Your Continent

Select Your Market

Select Your Language