In certain plants, the ovary can expand to become a fruit. Generally fruits have three characteristic layers: the skin or peel, the flesh (which can be wet or dry), and the inner layer that may contain a seed, tough stone, or pit. The main function of fruit is to distribute seeds to new locations where the plant might be able to grow. Like flowers, fruits are brightly colored, sweet to the taste, and have potent aromas. This attracts animals, birds, and insects to feast on the fruit and then deposit the seeds in a new location in their feces. Other ways that seeds can be transported is in the wind as plumes or fluff, floating on water, or by producing hooks, barbs, and stickers that allow them to attach to animal fur.

The citrus essential oils such as bergamot, lemon, lime, orange and tangerine are produced by cold-pressing the fruit rind. Essential oils that are produced by distillation of seeds include black pepper, coriander, fennel etc.

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